L'Esposizione Universale giapponese del 1970 si presenta
Sgomberando l’abitazione di un armatore genovese è stato trovato vario materiale stampato che si riferisce all’Esposizione Universale (detta più brevemente EXPO) svoltasi nel 1970 ad Osaka, in Giappone. La maggior parte dei documenti raccolti è costituita da opuscoli, cartelle e depliant, tutti redatti in lingua inglese, che si differenziano per contenuto, forma e dimensione.
Alcuni di essi sono semplicemente illustrativi, come le mappe e le cartine che rappresentano anche graficamente l’area dell’Esposizione; di particolare interesse è una vera e propria guida per il visitatore –denominata appunto “Visitor’s guide book to Japan World Exposition 1970”- nella quale sono presenti tra l’altro numerose informazioni pratiche, come il clima della zona, la moneta in circolazione, la cucina locale, i numeri di telefono da chiamare in caso di emergenza. Altri depliant sono invece di carattere prettamente pubblicitario: al riguardo si segnala quello della Seiko, uno degli sponsor della manifestazione come si evince da alcune fotografie, e quello del “Expo ’70 package tours”, che reclamizzava diversi viaggi, di varia durata da due a tredici giorni, nelle città e nei siti di interesse turistico posti nelle più o meno immediate adiacenze di Osaka (come ad esempio la visita delle città di Tokyo e Kyoto, presente in molti programmi).
Molto interessante è inoltre un libretto che contiene informazioni ed illustrazioni sugli stand (detti “pavillon”) allestiti dalle varie nazioni ospiti, compresa l’Italia, e da alcuni colossi industriali presenti all’evento, come ad esempio la Ibm e la Mitsubishi; fra il materiale raccolto si segnalano ancora diversi opuscoli che trattano di singoli stati, come è il caso dell’Australia, del Nicaragua, della Gran Bretagna e dell’Unione Sovietica. Proprio il depliant -in realtà un vero e proprio libretto, in quanto composto da circa una settantina di pagine– relativo a quest’ultimo paese desta forse la maggiore curiosità: in effetti, si tratta di un tipico esempio della propaganda governativa del periodo. In questa pubblicazione, redatta con un linguaggio celebrativo e retorico con l’evidente intento di esaltare l’importanza e la potenza dell’Unione Sovietica, si decantano tra l’altro la grandezza del paese anche per il numero dei suoi abitanti (si afferma che Mosca conta ben 6,5 milioni di abitanti e che altre nove città hanno una popolazione superiore al milione), l’uguaglianza dei diritti dei cittadini senza distinzione di genere, i grandi progressi industriali e scientifici anche nelle esplorazioni spaziali, la gratuità dei servizi scolastici e sanitari, l’eccellenza nell’educazione fisica.
Si rivela molto interessante anche l’opuscolo relativo alla Gran Bretagna, in particolare la sezione intitolata “Building for the future”: qui si richiamano i notevoli progressi della tecnica e si fa espresso riferimento alla diffusione dei nuovi mezzi di comunicazione, come la televisione, il telefono ed addirittura il computer, strumento che negli anni successivi avrebbe conosciuto una enorme espansione. Tale documento è quindi particolarmente indicativo per capire il clima e lo spirito in cui si svolse la manifestazione, il cui tema era “Progresso e Armonia per l’Umanità”: al netto di alcuni accenti eccessivamente celebrativi e propagandistici, dalla lettura di questa ed altre pubblicazioni fra quelle comprese nel materiale raccolto si trae infatti la chiara impressione di un grande entusiasmo nei confronti dei nuovi strumenti tecnico-scientifici e di una generale fiducia nelle loro future potenzialità.
JAPAN AND THE JAPANESE
THE JAPANESE PAVILION
The World Exposition is an international festival in which are brought together man’s wisdom and creative power. It indicates the present condition of the culture and civilization which men have attained and predict what course they will take in the future on the one hand, and on the other provide a splendid occasion for promotion of a better mutual understanding and goodwill among the peoples coming from all corners of the globe.
The Japan World Exposition, Osaka, 1970 is now opened on the largest scale in history with a great many participants from various countries overseas and relevant quarters at home. “Progress and Harmony for Mankind”, which is the central unifying theme of the Exposition, constitutes not only the interest of Japan but also that of the entire world. The progress in all fields of human activity, social, cultural, economic, scientific and technological, should be achieved with the full backing of humanity. Through this harmonious progress we should strive and march forward toward the brilliant future of peace and happiness. This is the common goal mankind greeting the 1970’s and looking towards the 21st century.
Japanese Pavilion has for its central theme “Japan and the Japanese”. As you know well, Japan has evolved her unique culture, absorbing the cultures of the East and the West and assimilating them with her native culture. This Pavilion is intended to present a picture of “Japan and the Japanese”, on an overall basis, over past, present and future and its multifarious aspects.
It is my ardent hope that visitors to Japanese Pavilion will a better and deeper understanding of Japan-her land and people.
“Japan and the Japanese” as Theme
With her people’s intrinsic energy and creative genius Japan has assimilated the cultures of the East and the West in the long span of her history and formed and developed a culture all her own. Today, she is carrying on an outstanding economic and industrial development against the background of her unique history and culture. She is fully aware of the multifarious tasks she has been assigned to perform in the present and future international society.
The theme “Japan and the Japanese” is expressed covering past, present and future. The 1st Pavilion unfolds the past course of Japan as a cultural history viewed from various angles. The 2nd and 3rd Pavilions both taking the present day Japan show the mighty energy with which her people tackle industry and life, and explore the climate and Nature indigenous to Japan. The 4th and 5th Pavilions grasp Japan’s future which is not imaginary but is what everyone feels close to himself, through the achievments in science and technology.
Japanese Pavilion expressing
Japanese Pavilion Representing the Symbol Mark
The Symbol Tower glittering under the midday sun. Five gigantic cylindrical buildings shining brightly lit with the night-time illumination. Japanese Pavilion can be seen from any corner of the Exposition site.
The five cylindrical buildings represent a cherry-flower, the Expo 70’s symbol mark. Each building is supported by three pedestal-like concrete pilotis.
The Pavilion, measuring 58 meters in diameter and 27 meters in height, being held up by the pilotis, afford the spacious and pleasant shade.
An escalator extending 45 meters from the central plaza surrounded by the five buildings will carry you to the 1st pavilion in front.
Area of building site: 37,791 m2
Floor space: 14,604 m2
Total area: 22,030 m2
Annexes: 586 m2
Japan’s Genius and Energy
Hints for the Visitor
I twill you more than 2 hours and half to see all the halls of Japanese Pavilion. As the five halls are independent of each other, you can take whichever course you like by taking the by-pass.
Prior understanding of the visitor is solicited in regard to the following:
When the hall is packed to capacity, visitors from The 3rd Pavilion like E and F may not admitted be to regulate the congestion in the hall.
Composition of the Japanese Pavilion
The 1st Pavilion
Dawn of Japan
Development of Japanese Culture
Ancient Groves of Cedars 7
Dawn of Yamato 7
Groups of Haniwa 7
Ancient Japan/Culture of Nara Period 7
Culture of Kamakura and Muromachi Periods 8
Culture of Azuchi and Momoyama Periods 8
Culture of the Edo Period 9
Course of Modern Civilazation 10
Cultural Interchange between East and West 10
The 2nd Pavilion
Big Steel Wall 12
Industrial Japan 12
Industrial Complexes 12
Production Mechanism/People at Work 12
Japanese Working in the World 13
Japan 1970/Hundred Million Japanese 14
Toward Tomorrow 15
The 3rd Pavilion
Nature in Japan and its Utilization
Four Seasons in Japan
Japan as viewed from Statistics
Marine world of Japan
Sources of Water 17
Raising of Farm Produce and Animals 17
Modern Agriculture and Forestry 17
Changes in Delta Area Farming 17
New Techniques of Agriculture and Forestry 17
Four Seasons in Japan 18
Japan as viewed from Statistics 18
Japanese Tradition 19
Marine World of Japan 19
The 4th Pavilion
Japanese Science and Technology
To Think’ 21
Japanese Science and Technology 21
Our World 22
Atom Towers 23
The 5th Pavilion
Japan in 21st Century
Japan and the Japanese
Multinuclear City Planning Bringing Work close to Home 25
Network City of Japan 25
Life-centered City Planning 25
New Functions of Land and Sea 25
Regional Community centering on Agriculture 25
A Day in the 21st Century 26
Japan and the Japanese 26
Japan and the Japanese in the statistics 27
Dawn of Japan
Development of Japanese Culture
The 1st pavilion is devoted to the interesting exploration of the history of Japanese culture. Japan, with the energy in heren’t in her people, introduced the cultures of the East and the West and, assimilating them whit her own, has developed her unique, harmonious culture.
The brilliant achievements of forefathers and our glorious cultural heritage are followed for each age. This is simply the unfolding of a picture-scroll of Japanese history.
Ancient Groves of Cedars
Going up by the long escalator and stepping into the hall, you will find countless metal pipes in the twilight before dawn. They symbolize the groves of cedars in ancient times.
Dawn of Yamato
When you pass slowly in the groves of cedars, you will see the surroundingng scenery rapidly sprading out before you and the day breaking to show the dawn of Japanese culture. The profusely pouring fresh and green light represents the ancient mountains and rivers of yamato (the present Nara district), the cradle of the generous and stout heart of Japan. They represent the Nature with the great potentialities of culture and civilization.
Group of Haniwa
As you move on, the light grows milder and a group of haniwa, clay figures of a man clad in armour and a humorous farmer and the like, appear in succession. They represent free, frank and simple life of our forefathers.
To help you understand the way of thinking of the Japanese when their history was unfolding itself, a god of the Japanese in the mythological age is represented by a simple artistic form image. In the center of the neat and clean plaza, rises a plain wood sculpture symbolic of Shinto, tha ancient religion of Japan.
Culture of the Nara Period (710-793)
Around the 6th century, Buddhism and various techniques were introduced from the continent which gave a far-reaching influence over the politics and the people’s life in Japan. The great changes wrought by them are represented here by the composition of vermilion-lacquered columns and Buddhist images.
“Gigaku-men” – Masks used in the ancient Gigaku, a form of dance brought in from the continent, reveal a strong Persian influence.
“Kudara Kannon” Zo – The image of Avalokitesvara, so called as it is said to be the work of a naturalized Korean, of single-piece keyaki (zelkova) wood.
Tanjiō Shaka Zō – A figure of Buddha at birth, worshipped on April 8 which falls on the birthday of Buddha. He is said, soon after he was born, to have pointed heaven and earth, and have chanted: “Holy am I alone throughout heaven and earth.”
“Butto” Head of Buddha, a masterpiece of the Hakuhō Period (first half of the Nara period) of a high historic value, discovered in recent years at the Kōfukuji Temple.
“Daibutsu Renben” – Part of the lotus petal seat of Great Buddha of the Tōdaiji Temple.
The scale and technique of the casting of the Great Buddha in the Tōdaiji may be said a grand national undertaking. It was later repaired and so its shape is changed from what it used to be, while a few petals of the lotus on which the figure was seated is extant.
Culture of the Heian Period (794-1185)
In this period the continental culture introduced to Japan struck root deep in her soil. The philosophy of Esoteric Buddhism brought home from the continent by Saichō and Kūkai, most learned priests in those days who went
over to T’ang to study, formed a new culture different from that of the Nara period. The latter part of the Heian Period saw the unfolding of the gorgeous Court culture and of the peaceful life of the common people.
Mandara – Illustrates the cosmological view of Esoteric Buddhism and is symbolic of Esoteric Buddhism of the Heian Period which teaches divine favours in this world.
Amidabutsu and Fudomyō-ō – Amida Buddha (Amitābha) Arriving from on high to take with him the pious people to the Buddhist Paradise. Fudō Myō-ō (Alcala or the God of Fire) chastising the powers of evil. They were the objects of worship among the people in those days.
Genji Monogatari Emaki (Coloured Picture-scroll of the Tales of Genji) – Depicts the fantastic beauty of the culture of the court nobles based on the above-named romance.
Shigi-san Engi Picture – Scroll – An account of the doings of Saint Myōren. Portays vividly the life of the common people.
Jigoku Sōshi – Toward the end of the Heian Period, the capital was the scene of the civil war as gruesome as hell. There are many such picture-scrolls.
Heiji Monogatari Picture-scroll – Pictures are after the style of yamato-e. Graphically depicts the deadly strife and bloodshed at the close of the Heian period.
Birth of kana – With the assimilation of the continental culture, Chinese characters and writings spread far and wide, and as copying of sutras became popular and Japanization of Chinese ideographs progressed, there came into being “kana” or Japanese syllabary. This evolution of kana is suggestive of the great ingenuity of the Japanese.
Culture of Kamakura and Muromachi Periods (1192-1573)
In these eras the military class gained power and brought a drastic change in the form of government. Amid this bewildering change there were introduced Zen sects from Sung and Ming and exerted a strong influence over the politics and culture in these periods.
At the end of the Muromachi period there arrived culture direct from the West and thus a new type of culture different from that of nobility in the past was formed.
“Kanzan” – This is the title given by Daitō Kokushi to one of his disciples, and we can feel the spirit of Zen in this noble work of calligraphy.
Gardens designed by Zen priests – The spirit of Zen to see the infinite universe in a small garden of the Ryōanji Temple is famous.
“Unsunkaruta” – A pack of cards introduced from Portugal and the prototype of the present playing cards.
After all rivalry of powerful lords, Hideyoshi Toyotomi got in to power. A pompous and gorgeous culture showing the power of the warrior was formed around the castle, while the people’s culture proudly came to the fore with the restoration of peace.
Meanwhile, there was natured a culture of highly spiritual character such as is observed in the tea ceremony and Noh.
Painted Folding Screens – “Karajishi” and “Cherry-blossoms and Maples” painted in a style keyed to grandeur and magnificence matching the tastes of the warrior class
and paintings in folding screens depicting the peaceful life of the common people are typical.
Recreation and amusement – From the close of the Muromachi period down to this period, prototypes of the tea cult, flower arrangement and Noh plays and Kyōgen were created.
Culture of the Edo Period (1603-1867)
The Edo Period in which Japan closed doors to the Western culture by the seclusion policy of the Shogunate Government witnessed the unique maturity of Japanese culture.
The new culture produced by samurais and townspeople under the feudal system of the Shogunate Government bespeaks the rich sensibility of the Japanese people. However, we must not forget that the labors of the men of the lower classes contributed greatly to the achievements of culture made in these periods, such as Noh, Kabuki plays, gardens, artcrafts etc., and accumulated to usher in the new era.
Learning – Besides Confucian learning as construed by Chu Hsi recommendend of officially by the Shogunate Government, “kokugaku” or Japanese classical school of learning and “Shingaku” or teaching of othics were popular, while the scientific knowledge of the West was brought through Nagasaki, and “terakoya” or private schools elevated the intellectural standars of the common people.
Kabuki and Joruri – The Genroku period produced excellent playwrights like Chikamatsu Monzaemon and great actors who created “kabuki”, a rich stage play.
Jōruri became popular as an ajunct to the puppet plays and the form of Bunraku was perfected in the first half of the 18th century.
Ukiyo-e or Genre pictures – They came into bloom in profusely variegated colours by such painters as Harunobu, Sharaku, Utamaro and others.
“Thirty-six Views of Mt. Fuji” by Hokusai and “Fiftythree Stages on the Tokaido” by Hiroshige are masterpieces of world-wide fame.
Course of Modern Civilization
In Meiji era Japan emerged from the long period of seclusion and the feudal system over a century ago and took in the up-to-date knowledge of the West at a stroke and sought to make radical reforms in all her political and social systems.
In the hundred years Japan has exhibited great changes in her culture and civilization unparalleled in the world. The Japanese people have endeavoured to build up their own cultural system overcoming the dislocations arising from to time in their society and mode of living which made a remarkable transformation.
Kurofune Model exhibit – “Opening of a new civilization” and enlightenment.
Brick Tower – On the rotating Restoration Panel you will see exhibits on “The Opening of the Nation”, “The Birth of a Modernized State”, “Westernized Civilization” and “Liberation of Man”.
Iron Tower – Here the mechanized equipments of Western Nations of the time such as telephone, photographic apparatus, gramophone and wall clock are operated by mannequins in white.
Dome of Glass – Here you will note dresses of different classes of people showing changes in the style of costumes through different periods in history.
Cultural Interchange between East and West
Japan, as a sea-girt country, has positively assimilated the foreign cultures which has come to her shores in succession for the past centuries. Panels showing the “Routes of Inflow of Foreign Culture” indicate the course followed in the past. Assuredly, this absorption and energetic assimilation of foreign cultures have made Japan and her development of today.
The 2nd Pavilion
Japan is now called world’s third largest industrial nation, after the United States and the Soviet Union. The leading segment played in her rapid economic growth has been the heavy and chemical industries, but no less important role has been performed by the smaller enterprises.
The 2nd Pavilion Magnificent Display represents Japan and the vigorous energy of her people through her developing industries and the people at work.
Big Steel Wall
The gigantic steel wall is rising up to the height of 25 meters.
This is the transformed stern of a tanker of the 300.000 ton-level. This dynamic structure symbolizes the powerful chemical industries, through her shipbuilding industry which ranks first in the world.
Industrial Map of Japan
Amid the blue light of panels after a design of waves there rises the Japanese Islands with their long coastlines. On this sea-girt country are located various industries. The following may be mentioned as the conditions of their long coastlines. On this sea-girt country are located various industries. The following may be mentioned as the conditions of their location:
- Natural conditions such as topography and weather (rice cultivation in Niigata and hydraulic-power generation in Kurobe).
- Those drawing on local resources (pulp in Hokkaido and iron manufacture in north Kyushu).
- Those relying heavily on the consuming centers and the related industries (shipbuilding in the Kansai districts).
- Those relying heavily on the consuming centers and the import of materials (industrial complexes in the Setouchi or Inland area).
- Traditional industries (towels in Shikoku and ceramics in north Kyushu).
Various industries developed on the Japanese Islands – the chemical industry and the ceramic industry can be seen by color slides.
Approximately 60 per cent of the country’s industrial production is concentrated in the four largest industrial zones, namely Keihin (Tokyo-Yokoyama), Hanshin (Osaka-Kobe), Chūkyo (Nagoya), Kita-kyushu areas spreading over in manifold ways. This industrial concentration recently has given rise to knotty problems, such as the shortage of land industrial use, drain of industrial water and difficulty in transportation. Thus, the importance of industrial complexes is further growing in weight.
You can see an ideal picture of this complex in the model “Kombinat”. This big model may visualize an ideal New Town plan which contemplates not only the efficient form of industry but also the anti-public hazards plan and integrated town planning, aiming at the “Industrial Town of the Sun and Arbor”.
Various production mechanism of modern industry are shown with reference in particular to the motorcar production. A motorcar consists of a great number of parts. There fore, the motorcar industry is closely connected with many allied industries and subcontract enterprises.
People at Work
This relief representing the workers on various jobsites, the average industrial workers at a transistor plant and
an iron works and a primary school teacher. Through these images, it revealed that the people, and their the energy and labor have supported the rapid development of Japan.
Japanese Working in the World
In the spacious hall, a world map brought in relief come out in a dynamic structure, and various machines in varied colors are in operation. Exhibits consist of such items as turbine, Braun tube, crystal glass, fibers, all symbolic of Japanese industry. In an instant, on the map are projected the Japanese actively working overseas, together with various Japanese products.
This may well be said a visual presentation of the vigorous activities of the said Japanese industry through trade as well as economic and technical cooperation. The six images set in the program and the working models of industrial machines combine to make a remarkably vivid impression of “Japan in the world”.
Here is an entrance which gives you an insight into the life of the Japanese people. On the long screen extending 15 meters long sideways along this curved surface of the wall are projected multifarious sections of the life of the Japanese, and visitors may have an idea of what changes the Japanese are undergoing in their life.
Hundred Million Japanese
The consumption of the daily necessaries, such as clothing and food, is approaching the international standard, as may be observed in colorful fashions and the preference for the abundance of food. Nor can we overlook increases in the expenditure for leisure and recreation and the elevation of educational standard.
This improvement of the people’s living standards is bound to involve various difficult problems. We cannot shut our eyes to the contraditions and dislocations resulting from the transition to a fuller life.
Housing is posing such problems as a limited space and over-standardized dwellings. In addition, there arise questions of over-density, such as the incomplete provision of roads and parks owing to the concentration of population in urban areas. Also, the vigorous activities of industry and the over-dense population in urban areas are giving rise to
public nuisances including the pollution of air and noises. This rapid urbanization also causes the problem of over-sparse population in mountain villages.
As to this question, man’s wisdom and scientific technology are being concentrated in various types of efforts now being pushed on to implement city planning, to develop techniques to prevent public nuisances and to enforce the legislation for controlling public nuisances with a view to protecting people’s health and providing them with a better living environment.
Our mode of living, attire, eating habits, housing, amusement and mutual love-these are also changing with the trends of society by the development of mass communication in 1970. With the advent of the new information age, our life will attain a further development.
So far we have seen the reality of life in various forms.
Now, let us think here of the future of your own as well as that of Japan. On the pure-white wall is written a verse as follows:
Let’s answer now.
Let’s answer for tomorrow.
You have already been asked the question.
Let’s answer, in the word of our own.
The 3rd Pavilion Nature in Japan and its Utilization
Four Seasons in Japan
Japan as viewed from Statistics
Marin World of Japan
Here you can enjoy yourself observing the relationship between Man and Nature through the display of agriculture and forestry as well as ocean development, and the four seasons in Japan. Furthermore, objects of industrial art produced by the traditional art of Japan are on display and various statistics are visualized by 120 slides.
Sources of Water
The sun and water give Japan this beautiful Nature of the country and the produces of agriculture, forestry and fishery in abundance affording the people the blessing of life. The Japanese people have developed the agriculture, forestry and fishery of today by conserving the water, by a full utilization of the sunshine and natural lay of the land and by developing techniques. Forests of Japan foster and preserve water, and thereby protector our land.
Raising of Farm Produce and Animals
Blessed with the sun shine and water reared by Mother earth, apples, mandarine oranges, grapes, tomatoes, pumpkins, green pease, carrots; cows, pigs and hens are abundant in Japan. Those models are displayed, speaking and moving in a comical way.
Photos on display are those representing the inland survey team of the Japanese 9th Antarctic expedition as they made a 5,180 km round trip of the South Pole. They record many research work, including the study of the cosmic rays and life.
Modern Agriculture and Forestry
How agriculture and forestry are consolidated in Japan at present and how Nature is being harnessed – these are shown by the arrangement of photographs. The “Climate” section will give you an insight into the climate and Nature peculiar to the Japanese Islands: under “Forestry”, contributions in the sphere of people’s living, including housing and furniture; under “Water”, utilization being made in many varied fields and for multiple purposes: under “Slope Area Farming”, the development of dairy farming and mandarin orange orchards and the efficient utilization of land; and under “Flat Area Farming”, with main emphasis on rice cultivation which forms the basis of agriculture.
Changes in Delta Area Farming
Agricultural development in Japan is due largely to the development of the delta areas formed by large rivers. The three rivers namely the Kiso River, the Nagar River and the Ibi River are most typical of such rivers. The development of the Nōbi delta areas looking toward a better future from their past is presented by colour photos.
New Techniques of Agriculture and Forestry
How efforts are being kept up and techniques developed over various fields toeward the future development of agriculture and forestry is shown by means of photo panels.
“Labor Saving”, Radiation Breeding” and “WPC” will mark an epoch in the development of Japanese agriculture and forestry.
Four Seasons of Japan
Beautiful seasonal changes in Japan.
The climate of the land embracing both the subtropical
and subfrigid zones is full of variety,
and seasonal changes are full of very delicate nuiances – spring sunshine,
summer’s deep green, autumnal tints, wintry snow.
Japan as viewed from Statistics
By the huge images of statistics projected by an “orgorama by means of 120 transparencies”, we can grasp the following picture of Japan:
First of all, the comparison of the world’s population and the Gross National Product. We can see the economic strength of each area in the world. Next, we are shown clearly the exapansion of Japan's trade and the composition of commodities as well as the structural change in trade following the high-grade advance of industrial structure. Crude steel is taken as representing production activity, and the expansion of its output is shown.
In addition, there are the data showing the development of the modernization of Japanese industrial structure and people’s livelihood. The problem of urbanization is touched on.
Like Nature and the climate of the land, Japanese aesthetic sense is susceptive to what is simple, plain, graceful and delicate. They have conformed to Nature and followed the course of Nature and developed the things all their own.
Under “Japanese Tradition” daily necessaries connected directly with man’s living, such as clothing, food and housing, objects of craftwork and folkcraft are on display.
Marine World of Japan
The ocean occupies about 70 per cent of the surface area of the earth. This spacious ocean has many untapped resources and their development and utilization are one of the world’s important tasks assigned for man to undertake. Researches in producing pure water from sea water at a low cost has already been advanced and industrialized.
Power Generation by using Waves – The maximum of 500 Watt Power is generated by pressing the air piston chamber by the power of waves.
Breeding Fishery – The fishery to cultivate fishery resources positively in order to protect such resources is presented by means of a projector (shrimps, breams, abalones, salmon.)
Survey Submarine – For utilization of the ocean it is essential to observe the conditions of the ocean. By riding in a simulated 150-seater submarine you can observe the actual living conditions of creatures in shallow and deep waters.
The 4th Pavilion
Japanese Science and Technology
The progress of science and technology is really outstanding as is demonstrated in space development. It sin now the motivating power behind the social and economic development. Their benefits we are enjoying in our everyday life are indeed immeasurable.
The 4th Pavilion will show you that the scientific techniques are innovated every day and are very significant in making every phase of our human life more comfortable.
“To think” is closely connected with the improvement of science and technology. The repeated operations of thinking and seeking a conclusion have developed our science and technology. In this hall are provided the teaching machines which are ready to ask you interesting questions. By this game of the dialoque with the machine you will realize that “thinking” is the first step to science.
Japanese Science and Technology
The rapid progress of science is wonderful. It is ever-expanding its realm, say, for example, space development and ocean development. The standard of science and technology today is regarded as the barometer of the national power of a country. Now that her science and technology have taken long strides, Japan is ranked among the world’s most advanced countries.
Among Japan’s proud achievements of scientific technology there are Yagi antenna, polyvinyl alcoholic synthetic fibers, MK magnetic steel, ammonium sulphate producing process, including prewar automatic looms, and postwar new Tokaido line, large-sized tankers, LD converter, microwave communication, rotary engine, high capacity electron microscope. Today, about 100 items of technology are exported annually. There will be no bounds to the future development of Japanese science and technology, which promise the realization of our dreams and a fuller living for us.
Linear-Motor electric railcar – This is most hopeful as the high speed railcar. Unlike the conventional railway train, the linear-motocar on which researches are now in progress, will not run on a rail, by taking advantage of the magnetic power, driven by the linear motor, and will be able to develop 500 km per hour in the future.
Quake-proof architecture – As Japan is frequently visited by earthquakes, buildings to be constructed should be quakeproof. With the recent progress of researches, coupled with the development of electronic computers, we now can calculate the precise effects of an earthquake, and so construct skyscrapers which have never existed before.
Electron microscope – Japanese-made electron microscopes are in wide use abroad because they are axcellent in capacity and easy to handle.
By this electron microscope you can get a glimpse of the world of microorganism which cannot be seen by an ordinary microscope, and this world is shown here by photo panels.
Synthetic Chemistry – Urea, an organism, had been synthesized for the first time in 1828. In 1948 Japan succeeded in mass- producing urea for fertilizer on a commercial basis. The extent of research and development was remarkable and Japan’s technology is adopted in many countries.
The South Pole – The Antartic Continent provides us with excellent conditions to study the earth and the sun, while it is also the intensely cold continent of ice.
Photos on displays are those representing the inland survey team of the Japanese 9th Antartic expedition as they made a 5,180 km round trip of the South Pole. They record many research work, including the study of the cosmic rays and life.
The progress of science facilitates world communications. There is a huge model of the universe with a 28 m-diameter. You may catch a glimpse of the 17 cities and their people on the globe shown here on the world map. This may be symbolic of men’s communication backed by science and technology.
Now we can harness a tremendous energy called “atomic power”. Atomic power means the enormous energy which is released as heat or radioactive rays emanating from nuclear reaction.
Unfortunately, it was in the form of atomic bomb for destruction that this atomic power was first made and used by man. Such a disastrous and meaningless use of atomic power to making should be avoided by all means.
“The Tower of Atomic Holocaust” has been constructed in the hope that our bitter experiences shall not be repeated by anyone in the world. From this viewpoint, Japan displayed materials on atomic disasters at the Brussels World Exposition. Also, Atomic Library in Hiroshima keeps various materials on atomic bombs. We hope that you might visit the Library to see them with your own eyes.
Atomic power, if rightly used, will give us splendid power. It can enrich our life atomic power generation, atomic ships, radiotherapy and otherwise. The tapestry representing our desire for its peaceful uses-is the “Tower of Atom for Peace”.
The 5th Pavilion
Japan in the 21st Century
Japan and the Japanese (Movie)
What will be Japan of the 21st century?
Here are shown the fruits of researches of several institutes.
In the large hall “Japan and the Japanese”, the theme of Japanese Pavilion, are grasped through the graceful figure of Mt. Fuji and the lives of the people at its foot and projected on the huge, multi-faced screen.
Multinuclear City Planning bringing work close to home.
The 21st century will see each of these city-groups, called the highly densely populated city unit. This future image of the town is shown on the wall by a model of a large city in the Kinki districts.
Network City of Japan
In the 21st century Japan’s population will surpass 120 million. Therefore, the population will not be concentrated in any specific area, but city-groups supported by a traffic information network, called networkcities will be formed at various places the land over. The picture of Japan as it will have been redeveloped by making positive use even of continental shelves as well as land is shown by a cubic model.
Life-Centered City Planning
With North Kyushu as a model the future image of a provincial city is presented. Here are shown two model cities: a central city integrating housing, educational institutions and places of work and a city free from any puplic nuisances and with full regard for humanity, adjoining to a big industrial zone constructed by extensive reclamation.
New Functions of Land and Sea
City-groups around Ise Bay. Manufacturing will concentrate in the land reclaimed from the sea, while the residential area, together with farming, will concentrate on the hilly area. The respective city-groups will transform themselves while being redeveloped at long regular intervals. The developmental process of this city-group is shown by means of transparencies.
Regional Community centering on Agriculture
Here is shown a plan under which “Shirasu” tableand in Kagoshima Prefecture is to be developed as a regional community centering on agriculture, Japanese agriculture will shift to a large “conglomerate” and the status of the agricultural area will undergo a big change. The soil will be improved and crops adapted to varying grades of height will be grown and artificial farms will emerge.
Life on a day in the 21st century Japan
Our human life is basically motivated by the desire. The new pattern of life is formed by the correlation between the personal desire and social structure, which will in turn change the society itself.
The 21st century will see our material life improving to a substantial degree. Thus, we shall attach utmost importance to the spieitual value or life worth living. That may be a job, home life or leisure. Such various aspects of life in the 21st century are shown by a film of animated cartoon.
Japan and the Japanese
The 5th Pavilion capable of holding 1,100 guests is equipped with a big hall in which eight-sided films are projected. Pictures showing four seasonable changes around the Mt. Fuji, one of Japan’s symbols, and man’s life of no distinction live on the skirts are depicted there in an attempt to symbolize the figures and spirits of Japan and the Japanese.
The size of each screen is 16 meters in height and 48 meters in width, one of the world’s largest sizes.
For the clearness of images, a double-frame system is adopted both in photographing and projecting.
Inquiry as to Japanese Pavilion may be made at the Information counter at the lower part of the 4th pavilion and hostesses and hosts in uniform.
You will find one between each pavilion.
Resting and Smoking
Resting spaces and the smoking spaces are provided between pavilions and you are requested kindly to refrain from smoking except in the smoking space.
They are provided in the resting space of each pavilion, the Information counter at the lower part of the pavilion and the dining hall.
Restaurant and Tearoom
You can have them at a large dining hall with a capacity of around 120 seats which is situated on the ground outside the 2nd pavilion.
Please immediately contact the hostess or host nearby. The medical office is in the 1st pavilion and an ambulance may be arranged.
Lost articles are kept in the office in the basement of the 3rd pavilion and so please contact the hostess or host.
When your child is missing, please contact the hostess or host, who will, in turn, contact the Missing Children Center for the entire Expo site.
Announcement for calling within the hall cannot be made except for emergency purposes.
JAPAN AND THE JAPANESE IN THE STATISTICS
Average Temperature and Precipitation, 1967
LENINGRAD PHILARMONIC ORCHESTRA
JAPAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 1970 WORLD EXPOSITION
JAPAN WORLD EXPOSITION, OSAKA, 1970
“Find your way”
Period March 15-September 13, 1970
The time of opening is as follows;
From March 15- From April 29-
April 28 September 13
Opening of the site 9:30 a.m. 9:00 a.m.
Opening of pavilions 10:00 a.m. 9:30 a.m.
Closing of pavilions 9:00 a.m. 9:30 p.m.
Closing of site 10:00 a.m. 10:30 p.m.
The Official Guide and Official Souvenir Map are sold at mobile shops and other places inside and outside Expo site.
Information about Expo Site
Gates and Parking Areas There are five gates to the Expo site; Main, West, North and South Gates. Parking areas for ordinary cars are located near the East, West, South and North Gates, and parking areas for buses are located near the Main, North and West Gates.
Information Booth All kinds of information concerning EXPO’70 are available at 20 information booths within the site in the Japanese and other languages.
Tasting of foods and shopping of goods of all nations Varieties of foods are served at restaurants and unique products of many nations are sold at shops in Expo site.
Lending Services 18 service stations have 1,400 strollers, 400 wheel chairs, 10,000 umbrellas and these are for free lending. The only requirement is to return the borrowed articles.
Clinics and First Aid Stations Four medical clinics (one of which is dental) and six first aid stations are open for your emergency need.
Lost Children Those who bring children into the site are requested to receive a “tag for a lost child” from the machine at the entrance or from any of the information booths. If a child is found astray, the child will be taken care of at an information booth for a time, while television and other measures will be used to locate the child’s parents, caretaker or guardian. It will be also announced on the electronic information boards placed in many places at the site. If these will have no effects from such an announcement, the child will be taken to the “Lost Children Center” for necessary care and protection.
Lost goods, accidents There are Guard Commands in five areas of the site and 29 Guard Boxes in the site. They receive reports on lost goods or an accident directly or by telephone and take immediate action.
Facilities with fees
Expo Hall: World’s popular talents will perform shows. Fees range from ¥300 to ¥3,500.
Festival Hall: Classic music performances, operas and ballet shows and international movie contests are planned. The fees range from ¥500 to ¥7,000. The Festival Hall is located near Osaka Station.
Expo Museum of Fine Arts: Many pieces of precious works of art ranging from the prehistoric to the present day sent from many countries will be shown. The fee is ¥200 per adult. Discount for students or group members will be made.
Expoland: There are lost of adventure and new types of amusement. Fee ¥50 to ¥100.
Toilet facilities are located in many places within the site. “Mobile toilets” are also available.
Maps and Guidebooks They are sold at shops and mobile shops.
EXPO '70 NEWS
EXPO ’70 NEWS
Seventy-seven-That’s the number of countries – including Japan of course – participating in EXPO ’70, which is being held from March 15 to September 13 amid the Senri Hills near Osaka. And that’s 17 more than were at EXPO ’67 at Montreal, Canada.
Also joining in Asia’s first world exposition are four international organizations, a territorial government, six provinces and states, three cities and two private enterprises from overseas.
Unique with EXPO ’70 are the “International Places” where 31 countries are housed. The fact that this world exposition is the first held in Asia has attracted 37 nations from the Afro-Asia region.
EXPO ’70 is the first world’s fair to exhibit a “souvenir” from the moon, brought back by Apollo 12 along with spacecraft and other equipment for space exploration.
During this 183-day exposition, most foreign participants will have their day in the spotlight. Distinctive programs will celebrate each of these “National Days” and “Special Days.” And on these Days, chiefs of state or other dignitaries will attend celebration at Festival Plaza. With 400 expected, this will be an unprecedented rush of VIPs to Japan within the short interval of six months.
Brief descriptions of the pavilions of foreign participants follow. Some nations exhibiting in the joint pavilions built by the Expo Association are not introduced independently, but rather in the section devoted to these International Places.
(The articles are given in the order the applications for participation were received.)
Foreign Government Pavilions…………………........1
International Organization Pavilions…………....15
EXPO ’70 Site Plan and List of Participants…..16
Foreign Province Pavilions……………………..........18
Foreign Private Pavilions………………………..........20
Japanese Government Pavilion……………….........22
Japanese Private Pavilions……………………..........23
CANADA, KOREA, U.S.A.
Area: 9,650 m2 (104,220 ft2)
The Canadian Government Pavilion will give fairgoer the illusion of being in another world when he steps into the “palace of mirrors”. The illusion, evoking sky or hill, solid or void, suggests arctic glaciers, great mountains, vast prairie skies or the glitter of water, all aspects of the Canadian landscape.
At the center of the structure, where the warmth of natural wood contrasts with the cool glass, will revolve several huge inverted parasols, a union of art with architecture.
Theme: Better Understanding and Friendship
Area: 4,150 m2 (44,820 ft2)
The Republic of Korea Pavilion is a blending of the old and new Korea and is surrounded by 15 giant steel pillars which symbolize the Korean accomplishment in modern industrialization. The exhibits within the pavilion show Korea’s history, progress toward becoming a prosperous, self-sufficient nation and hopes and plans for the future.
The upper floor is devoted to displays of historical and cultural interest which include metal movable printing type used in Korea extensively in the 13th Century, more than 200 years before Gutenberg introduced a similar method in Europe.
The third floor depicts the modern Korea and the industrial progress it has achieved. Exhibits on this floor are mainly photographic and mosaic works illustrating Korea’s natural beauty, resources and people.
Theme: The Images of America
Area: 19,905 m2 (214,974 ft2)
The United States Pavilion has a translucent air-supported roof covering an area the size of four football fields. Sunlight passes through the roof during the day and it glows at night from interior light, so that it looks like a flying saucer from a distance.
The exhibits in the pavilion, which will tell who Americans are, where and how they live, and what they have created in the way of culture, science and technology, will be presented in seven sections.
They include: “Ten Photographers,” a photo documentary; “American Painting;” and “Sports,” baseball memorabilia, sports cars and films.
A top attraction will be a display on the Apollo project with moon rocks and a original command module.
CHINA, NETHERLANDS, U.S.S.R
Theme: Heritage and Progress
Area: 4,150 m2 (45,000 ft2)
Architecturally, the Republic of China Pavilion expresses the Chinese philosophy of intricacy within simplicity. Two equal and opposite triangular towers are unified by a massive canopy of lights, echoing the majesty of a palace gate of the Han dynasty.
The gateway symbolizes cultural exchanges between China and other nations throughout her long history. Exhibit rooms are created by cantilevers thrusting into the space between the two towers.
Of the ten distinct exhibit areas, the first four aim at giving the visitors a new perspective on civilization – by showing some of China’s unique gifts to mankind, ranging from science and technology to language and arts; the fifth area presents the story of China’s transition from her dynastic past to the modern republican era; the next four areas show China’s progress in education and transportation, and the economy of Taiwan today; the last area projects a view of the Island Beautiful as a major attraction for tourist in the Far East.
Theme: Progress through Openness
Area: 4,080 m2 (44,100 ft2)
The organizers of this pavilion intend to give visitors a vivid impression of life in the Netherlands. Much attention will be paid to the historic relations between the Netherlands and Japan, and to the overseas members of the Netherlands realm – Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles.
The aim is to impress upon visitors that the Dutch people, living at a junction of world traffic routes, have long regarded contact with others as a vital necessity.
The highlight of the exhibition will be extensive use of a projection technique in which several films shown on a number of screens simultaneously.
The Dutch Pavilion consists of a series of cube-like tiered sections spiraling up to a height of 30 meters (98.5 feet) and supported by four towers rising out of a pool.
The top section affords a panoramic view of a large part of the Expo area. From here four elevators will take the visitors to the exit of the pavilion.
Theme: Man in Harmony with Nature
Area: 20,422 m2 (221,000 ft2)
The pavilion crowned with the Soviet Union’s hammer and sickle symbol presents an imposing sight, rising to a height of 103 meters. Because 1970 marks the centenary of Vladimir Lenin’s birth, the exhibition is dedicated to the nation’s founding father.
The giant steel structure, covering 8,430 square meters, has a section on the “harmonious development of the individual under socialism” describing the daily life of Soviet people from nursery to college. On display will be things such as a rubashka worn by Tolstoy, a piano used by Tschaikovsky, and ancient folkcraft articles.
Another section shows the vastness of eastern and northern Siberia. A Soviet spaceship, a laser system and high-precision machinery demonstrate the high level of Russian technology.
Folk songs and dances will be performed by Russian artists at the Concert Hall.
BELGIUM, GERMANY, SWITZERLAND
Theme: You and us
Area: 5,280 m2 (57,000 ft2)
The Belgian presentation is composed of two exhibition buildings and a garden. One building, containing exhibits only, is 19 meters tall and has a huge roof of red tile. It looks like one of the big barns found in the Belgian countryside.
The exhibits will be in three sections: the present, past and future of Belgium. Selected for display are items that underline the similarities between Belgium and Japan, illustrating the pavilion’s theme “You and Us”.
The second building will contain two restaurants, a conference hall and movie projection room and the offices of the Commissioner General.
There is also a garden, conceived by Belgian architect Waltz, that utilizes water and stones, as do Japanese gardens.
Theme: Cooperation, Progress and Peace
Area: 9,704 m2 (105,000 ft2)
A 17-meter-tall dome, painted in the EXPO ’70 official color, blue, is the landmark of the German Pavilion. The greater part of the German Pavilion. The greater part of the exhibition space is underground and hidden from view.
Meeting the eyes of visitors will be a magnificent flower garden where German music is heard. The “music garden” will have plants of Germany’s four seasons, and sculptures by young artists.
The dome houses an auditorium accommodating 750.
The flower-bedecked garden, covering 10,000 square meters, has four mounds, under which are four theaters and the main exhibition space.
The first theater will feature visual effects created electronically. Futuristic musical instruments will be heard in the second theater.
The third theater is to be dedicated to the fantastic progress of modern science. Audio-visual effects will be presented in the fourth theater.
Theme: Diversity in Harmony
Area: 6,440 m2 (70,000 ft2)
This radiant structure, 21 meters (68.8 feet) tall and 55 meters (180.4 feet) in diameter, may be compared with a highly stylized tree.
A sturdy trunk vanishes gradually into ramifications, the entire surface being decked with aluminum plates. With 32,000 glass spheres flashing in the sunlight and shining forth as electric lights in the evening, the tree has by day and by night a friendly appearance and transmits something of the aura of a festive experience.
Under the structure there is an agreeable air-conditioned area where electronic music completes the atmosphere of joy and relaxation.
The adjacent pavilion houses a thematic show and a restaurant with a kiosk for the sale of Swiss souvenirs.
A restaurant seating 180 persons, and a bar and cocktail lounge offer visitors the opportunity of getting acquainted with the best of Swiss gastronomy.
NEW ZEALAND, AUSTRALIA, FRANCE
Theme: New Zealand and the New Zealanders
Area: 2,914 m2 (31,500 ft2)
Five square structures constitute the New Zealand Pavilion, which emphasizes that nation’s industry. Two aspects are emphasized: food production and trade.
Exhibits will show how the country has reached its prominent position as a food producer by its advanced methods. Two of the five building are restaurants, which will present the theme in a most practical way.
Visitors will move along an inclined walkway, starting in a brush and mountain setting and passing through forests to open farmlands.
They will see aspects of life in cities and towns and display illustrating the educational system, social services, sports and leisure activities.
Theme: The Australian Contribution to Progress and Harmony for Mankind
Area: 8,147 m2 (87,990 ft2)
Modern developments in Australia are portrayed in a series of visually exciting displays that give the visitors an impression of the tempo of events today in this rapidly developing young country.
A tunnel below ground level through which visitors are transported on moving platforms will have 47 large cases fixed to its sides.
The most striking feature of the pavilion is the cantilever tower which slopes up gracefully to the height of a 10-story building and curves over at the top to form a “sky hook.”
The Tower is intended to represent the natural resources of Australia rising out of the earth. From the tower is suspended a 260-ton free-hanging circular roof which, from a distance, appears to float above the ground with no visible support.
To entertain visitors, a spectacular film is shown on wide screens extending entirely around the inner rim of the circular roof.
Theme: Road of Liberty
Area: 10,876 m2 (117,500 ft2)
The French Pavilion is made up of four giant plastic domes, called by the French architects the “Umbrellas of Osaka.”
One dome will contain a restaurant and a theater with a huge screen extending all the way from an underground portion to the top.
Each dome extends 30 meters (98.4 feet) above the ground. The structures are surrounded by a garden, a pond and a fountain.
The French Revolution and various other historical incidents and cultural developments are introduced in the exhibitions halls, which resemble large planetariums.
The exhibits are arranged in the following three groups:
- Technical and economic independence international cooperation;
- Control of the future and study of juvenile problems by scientific research; and
- preservation and development of the unique character of the French people.
BULGARIA, KUWAIT, U.K.
Theme: Progress is struggle for Harmony in the World
Area: 3,614 m2 (39,000 ft2)
The pavilion of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria is situated in the northwest part of the exposition complex, facing the Soviet Union Pavilion.
It has an upper part shaped by four triangular pyramids of tubular structure coated with aluminum panels and glass.
The pyramids symbolize the Bulgarian native mountains, among which the Balkans are the most important having played a leading part in the historical fortunes of the Bulgarian people.
The exhibits are developed under four basic themes as follows:
- Bulgaria – Incubator of Ancient Culture;
- Struggle for National and Social Liberation;
- 25 Years of Socialism; and
- Country of Beauty, Country of Developed Tourism.
Area: 800 m2 (8,640 ft2)
Topped by the golden dome of an Islam mosque, this two-story pavilion symbolizes the traditions of Kuwait established under the strong unification of the Mohammedan nation through religious worship.
The glass-covered exterior of the pavilion shows the rapid modernization of the country, made possible largely by petroleum. The immense oil reserves of Kuwait, estimated at 60 billion barrels, have made the nation the world’s richest in per-capita income.
Exhibits and films describe the oil refineries, chemical plants and other industries as well as the nation’s historical background.
In a pond in front of the pavilion is a replica of the sailing vessels that were used for the country’s trade in bygone days.
Theme: Progress, Promise and Variety
Area: 8,078 m2 (86,400 ft2)
Red steel masts mark the British Pavilion on the western edge of the Exposition site.
The pavilion, suspend from the masts, forms a giant canopy floating over an open-air concourse.
Four separate exhibition halls linked by bridges contain exhibits that present a lively view of Britain, her culture heritage and the way the people live.
The concourse underneath the exhibition halls features a water garden and a rest area.
The structure was designed by the well-known architects Powell and Moya.
CUBA, R. C. D., PORTUGAL
Area: 1,693 m2
The Cuban Pavilion offers a general panorama of economic and political struggle to overcome underdevelopment, the constant striving of a nation to rise from socio-economic backwardness, and the aspirations of a people working to achieve a firm standing among the nations of the world.
The exhibits show elements of Cuban history intended to give a better understanding of its present.
The pavilion was designed and built by a team of professors and students of the Architectural School of Havan University.
The exhibits are in two zones:
- An outline of pre-revolutionary Cuban history, at the starting point of the visitors’ tour.
- Aspects of the present creative activity of the Cuban people, shown in the main hall.
Photographic murals, enriched by color lighting and the use of sound effects, contribute to the presentations.
R. C. D.
Area: 4,835 m2 (52,218 ft2)
The RCD Pavilion is a joint presentation at EXPO’70 by the three member nations of the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD). They are Turkey, Iran and Pakistan.
The Pavilion ha three exhibit sections and a plaza.
The first section, the largest one, contains an exhibition hall for each of the three countries. Each country will visualize its culture, life and industrial development and will also picture its future.
The second section is an art exhibition hall where works including paintings and sculptures will be on display. The displays will be changed during the Expo period.
The third section consists of a coffee shop, restaurant, and pavilion offices.
At the coffee shop, noted coffee of each country will be served to fairgoers.
Area: 3,220 m2 (35,000 ft2)
This two-story ferro-concrete structure was designed by Portugal’s leading architect, Prof. Federico George.
Exhibits describe how the Portuguese people have contributed to the promotion of international understanding and cultural development, particularly in their relations with Japan. The establishing of ties between the two nations was marked by the introduction of Poetuguese firearms to Tanegashima Island, a southern island of Japan, in the mid-16th Century.
The exhibits also introduce customs and manners and typical foods of Portugal.
THAILAND, PHILIPPINES, ALGERIA
Area: 3,200 m2
The bright golden towers of the Thailand Pavilion represent the hope for worldwide peace and Thailand’s gesture of friendship to the people of the world regardless of nationality or religious belief.
The pavilion consist of a rectangular exhibition hall flanked by two imposing structures identical in design, patterned after Thai temples, the finest expression in Thai architecture.
The displays in the pavilion cover a wide range of subjects from Thai culture and history to economic and social development. There is a collection of priceless art objects brought from the National Museum in Bangkok. Modern Thailand is represented by exhibits showing the progress of Thai industries. Also on display will be the famous Thai silk, beautiful Thai jewelry, and Thai bronze and silverware.
Theme: Progress through the Harmony of Diverse Cultures
Area: 1,600 m2 (17,280 ft2)
This exhibit will present the modern Filipino and his institutions, using as a background the various cultural influences that have affected his development.
The Philippines has blended diverse cultures into a unified identity which has rallied the people to nationhood and progress. The exhibit will show this process in terms of people, their aspirations, their activities and their accomplishments.
The pavilion will transmit its message through the use of “idea centers” – clusters of photographs, articles, and artifacts in artistic arrangements designed to create an atmosphere rather than to express facts and figures.
At the first level, the visitors are oriented to the location and position of the country and learn about basic characteristics of the cultures.
At the second and main levels, they meet the Filipino in his political system, his social milieu and economic enterprises.
Area: 2,000 m2 (21,400 ft2)
This high-floored, all white pavilion presents an image of Algiers, the capital of the country.
The structure, built on a 2,000-square-meter lot facing the Japanese Garden, features a Harmonious combination of traditional Algerian architecture and modern design.
Exhibits on the third floor give a “true picture” of the republic. On display are a number of historical art works brought from museums and also up-to-date industrial products described by audio-visual means.
In the second-floor exhibition hall, visitors see the “Richness of Algeria” represented by its thriving agriculture, industry and underground resources such as minerals and petroleum.
Algeria from prehistoric to contemporary times is depicted in large-scale murals dramatized by light and sound effects.
MEXICO, SCANDINAVIA, ETHIOPIA
Theme: Towards Greater Mutual Understanding through Art
Area: 2,957 m2 (31,639 ft2)
This pavilion is a modern version of the spacious citadels of the ceremonial centers of “Teotihuacan” (City of the Gods) of the Fifth Century A.D.
The overall architectural effects is of symmetrical dynamism, the pre-Columbian concept of dualism and the dynamic union of opposing elements.
To illustrate the main concept of its exhibition, Mexico has used in her pavilion sculptural-pictorial symbols, films, masterpieces of art from many epochs, craft, music, dance and plastic arts section created especially for EXPO’70 by young Mexican artists.
From the main vestibule, the “Sun Stone,” used as the Aztec calendar, marks a fine collection of pre-Columbian art, and baroque religious and profane New Spanish works of the 17th Century, all of which are national treasures.
Folk dances and concerts by famous musicians will be performed on two outdoor stages.
Theme: Protection of Environment in an industrialized Society
Area: 3,242 m2 (35,000 ft2)
Five countries of Northern Europe – commonly known as Scandinavia – have jointly built the Scandinavian Pavilion. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have joined their efforts in EXPO’70 to give an example of their cooperation in many fields where it is evident that no national boundaries should exist.
The floor and ceiling of the exhibition hall are visually divided into two distinct halves. The left part shows everything “positive” that can be welcomed by man and animals in a well-planned industrial society.
The right side shows many “negative” results of unrestrained industrial revolution, e.g., smog, polluted water, chemically contaminated food, etc.
More than a hundred projectors will show on wide screens these negative and positive aspects. Loudspeakers will reproduce sounds of heartbeats, running water, urban noise, etc.
Theme: Friendship across the continents
This northeast African country is constructing an independent pavilion consisting of three structures patterned after traditional houses.
The woven-bamboo buildings will be linked by passageways.
An access hall will introduce Ethiopia through photographs and objects.
Two of the three buildings will be used for exhibitions dealing with the nation’s cultural heritage and one as a coffee shop.
The pavilion site is on a pond. Wild life of Ethiopia including lions and flamingos will be on display.
Among other items to be shown will be bamboo-work and crocodile and monkey leather products. Some of the exhibited goods will be sold to visitors.
BURMA, GREECE, SAUDI ARABIA
Theme: Cultural Heritage and Modern Advancement
The Burmese Pavilion is both an object of Burmese art and an exhibit of natural Burmese products. In the main hall of the “Royal Barge”, the splendid ceiling, with lights representing flowers amid wood-carvings in a floral motif, shows how well modern fixtures can be integrated into objects of time honored culture.
The exhibits include pearls, rubies, sapphires and jade, for which
The restaurant on the pavilion site represent a riverside rest-house such as one would see from the Royal Barge on its journeys. The restaurant serves authentic Burmese food.
This pavilion consisting of nine buildings set on a high mound is reminiscent of the acropolis of ancient times. Part of it is patterned after the
An attempt is made to relate the 5,000 years of continuous civilization in
The exhibits consist of copies and originals of frescoes, vases, ceramics, sculptures, bas-reliefs, jewels, coins and icons, and photographs, models of ships, and examples of contemporary industry and handicraft.
Theme: Progress within Harmony
The exhibition concept is initially manifested in the architectural design of Arabic style in an ultra-modern context.
The exhibit hall reflects the spirit of progress in the
The Symbol Zone inside the pavilion is entitled “Towards Better Utilization of Natural Resources.” In this section, the country’s effort to tap its natural resources are described.
The corridor leading to the religious hall will acquaint the non-Muslim visitor with the religion o Islam. The universality of Islam – the religion of over 600 million people all over the world.
Another feature in the religious hall is two huge color transparencies of the mosques of
CZECHOSLOVAKIA, CEYLON, TANZANIA
Theme: Freedom and Development
The display at the Czechoslovakian Pavilion consists of four divisions. In the first division the country and its robust people are introduced. The remaining three express the joys, fears and ultimate hopes of mankind.
One of the main exhibits, a “glass river,” is
At a theater in Expoland, the traditional “Laterna Magica show will be presented. The show, combining live performers with images projected on a screen, enthralled audiences in
The theater, made entirely of glass, resemble a castle.
Theme: Man and Time
The story of
The inside walls are covered with numerous fresco paintings representing Buddhist art.
On display are stone statues which have never previously been taken outside the country. There are also artistic examples of bronze handicrafts, some dating as far back a 3,000 years.
A Ceylonese lantern, showing in its design and colors the influence of the Sinhalese who arrived in
There is a lotus pond in the compound of the pavilion.
The Tanzanian Pavilion brings the splendor of the African forests to
The outstanding feature of the pavilion is the Hall of Nature – the first the visitor enters. Here, Tanzania’s proud claim to being the last unspoiled nature paradise on earth is upheld by the fantastic sights and sounds os snow-capped Kilimanjaro, the Serengeti Plains, fabulous Ngorongoro Crater, the great lakes of the Rift Valley, etc.
In the Hall of the People, where the main exhibit is a replica of the Homo Zinzanthropus skull found in Olduvai Gorge, displays tell of the former glories of the kingdoms of Zanzibar and Kilwa; the Arab, Portuguese, German and British invaders; and the slave trade and the explorers, culminating in the winning of freedom.
IVORY COAST, INDONESIA, SINGAPORE
The pavilion is made up of the Historical House plus three cylindrical structures eight to
The three halls, collectively called “Modern House,” display agricultural products, industrial items and cultural materials dealing with the present and future of the West African country.
Film screenings and folk dances, describing the past of the country from the colonial period until its independence, will be presented at the Historical House.
Theme: Unity in Diversity, Diversity in Unity
This pavilion, situated west of the Symbol Area, has an appearance of masses bound together by the “space frame” roof structure. The interior consists of exhibition spaces surrounding an area in which performances will be given.
The pavilion has four major zones. Zone I gives general information about
Zone III presents “fragments” from
Zone IV will introduce the present status of
A hundred meters from the West Gate of the EXPO site stands the Singapore Pavilion, leading to a garden filled with exotic flowers and tropical plants. From a high place nearby, the attractions of the garden can be fully appreciated.
There are two huts on the
VIETNAM, COLOMBIA, ITALY
The architectural as well as the decoration of the stands of the Vietnam Pavilion is designed to convey an image of a people who are vitally concerned with culture and eager for progress.
After seeing the exhibits, visitors can gain a more complete idea about
Theme: Sobriety and Harmony
The triangular shape of this pavilion denotes the three pillars of
The ground floor serves as a large recreation zone and the upper floor is an art gallery.
Displays deal with the country’s traditional and contemporary art and culture, way of life and main lines of economy.
This steel and glass structure in the shape of a steep mountain ridge was designed by young brother architects who won a nationwide contest for the honored work. The three-story building with one basement level stands
Visitors will enjoy a trip to Italian cities via a film giving a sensation of flying in a helicopter.
They will also see a classical Italian garden and works of art, and learn about Italian fashion, science, architecture and industry. A TV presentation will tell the story of Italian explorers in
An adjacent building, prefabricated in
INDIA, CHILE, CHRISTIAN PAVILION (VATICAN)
The Indian Pavilion is a large truncated cone with a wide skylight. Visitors enter by a series of terraces flanked by mud walls and typical rural structures.
The exhibits show the rich cultural heritage and rapid economic transformation of the country. The 23-meter-tall (75-foot) pavilion is a mingling of old and traditional design with the contemporary.
The visitors is taken by escalator to the top floor where the traditions of Indian arts and craft are introduced.
From the top floor, one descends to the middle floor where displays deal with the emergence and impact of Buddhism, the co-existence of religions and the renaissance of art in
The pavilion restaurant offers a wide variety of delicacies served in an Indian atmosphere.
Theme: Broadening the Pacific Horizons
The Chilean Pavilion was designed with a view to making it a sample of
An ancient volcanic stone sculpture called a “moai” brought from
The interior design presents an image of
Minerals sent by a museum in
Theme: Eyes and Hands
The Christian Pavilion will blaze a trail in the Christian movement in
Its main theme is “Eyes and Hands – Discovery of Man.”
“Eyes” of love, of faith and of hope will call on people to see through their own eyes the realities of life and to strive to seek individual solutions. Reconciling, praying and serving “Hands” will urge them to assume positive attitudes and use their hands in various ways to act for worthy causes.
Three tapestry works by Raphael will be displayed thanks to the cooperation of the
VIETNAM, COLOMBIA, ITALY
The architectural as well as the decoration of the stands of the Vietnam Pavilion is designed to convey an image of a people who are vitally concerned with culture and eager for progress.
After seeing the exhibits, visitors can gain a more complete idea about
Theme: Sobriety and Harmony
The triangular shape of this pavilion denotes the three pillars of
The ground floor serves as a large recreation zone and the upper floor is an art gallery.
Displays deal with the country’s traditional and contemporary art and culture, way of life and main lines of economy.
This steel and glass structure in the shape of a steep mountain ridge was designed by young brother architects who won a nationwide contest for the honored work. The three-story building with one basement level stands
Visitors will enjoy a trip to Italian cities via a film giving a sensation of flying in a helicopter.
They will also see a classical Italian garden and works of art, and learn about Italian fashion, science, architecture and industry. A TV presentation will tell the story of Italian explorers in
An adjacent building, prefabricated in
ARGENTINE, BRAZIL, ABU DHABI
Theme: Spirit of Peace
The Argentine Pavilion, with three stories and a basement level, is painted red, blue and yellow, colors that form a striking contrast with its white-tiled floor.
Industrial and farm products will be shown in extensive displays. Of special interest will be articles that gauchos, or cowboys, use on the pampas.
On the first floor is a restaurant accomodating 150 persons, where beef dishes and wine will be served to the accompaniment of music.
Outside the pavilion are stalls offering barbecued food, and a small theater where films of
Through numerous openings in the roof, sunlight and artificial light are beamed to spacious and partitionless interior.
The wide-spreading structure symbolizes the frank and open-hearted charater of Brazilians. The “Rhythm” theme refers to their fondness for lively music such as the samba.
In the exhibits, emphasis is put on
The pavilion of
The style of the building was inspired by fortresses that once dotted the country’s coastline.
The visitor is given an artists impression of Abu Dabi’s past of the part the sea and pearl gathering have played in the picturesque life of its people.
Displays show the rapid progress of
A special feature will be a replica of a colorful and romantic scene from the “Thousand and One Nights” where visitors will be entertained in the manner common to Arabs centuries ago.
The Malaysian Pavilion has a stage facing a semi-open-air restaurant where the piece de resistance will be the famous and highly popular Malaysian barbecue dish “satay”.
A feature of the main displays is a sculpture of anodized aluminum called “Industrial Scope.” The industrial area gradually merges into a cottage industry area where Malaysian handicraft articles including “bateks,” silverware, brassware, wood carvings, and cane work are displayed.
The second floor shows the art, culture and history of the various peoples of
Theme: Development through International Cooperation
The United Nations Pavilion is intended to bring home to visitors that the future of the U.N., and to some extent the whole future of humanity, depends on how the peoples of the world decide to use, strengthen and support this instrument which they themselves have created.
While the main exhibition halls are underground, some 526 metal poles at ground level will symbolize the peoples of the world. The poles will be illuminated at night.
The “Peace Bell,” originally donated by the United Nations Association of Japan to the U.N. in 1954, will be returned from
Special displays will include Nobel Peace Prize scrolls and medals given to UNICEF and U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees; a Population Dome and Population Meter, illustrating the problem of population explosion, and exhibits of “Breads of the World.”
Theme: International Cooperation
The OECD, the world’s largest grouping of industrialized countries, consists of 22 nations collectively dedicated to progress and harmony for mankind through international cooperation.
The exhibit consists of an audio-visual representation of the work of the OECD, divided into four main parts: 1. OECD Today, 2. The OECD Growth Story, 3. Problem of Modern Society and 4. OECD and the Developing World.
“The OECD Growth Story,” the key part of the exhibit, illustrates how the concept of international economic cooperation grew out of the post-World War II turmoil and how it brought about not only quick recovery but unprecedented economic growth through the next two decades.
“Problems of Modern Society” illustrates OECD’s concern with the solution of many of the problems arising in connection with rapid economic growth such as air and water pollution, congestion in big cities and housing shortages.
participants from abroad
- Canada (P.1)
- Korea (P.1)
- China (P. 2)
- Netherlands (P.2)
- Zambia (P.3)
- Belgium (P. 3)
- Germany (P. 3)
- Switzerland (P. 3)
- New Zealand (P. 4)
- Australia (P. 4)
- France (P. 4)
- Bulgaria (P. 5)
- Kuwait (P. 5)
- Cuba (P. 6)
- Turkey (P. 6)
- Portugal (P. 6)
- Thailand (P. 7)
- Philippines (P.7)
- Algeria (P. 7)
- Mexico (P. 8)
- Denmark (P. 8)
- Finland (P.8)
- Iceland (P.8)
- Norway (P. 8)
- Sweden (P. 8)
- Ethiopia (P. 8)
- Laos (P. 21)
- Burma (P. 9)
- Greece (P. 9)
- Dominica (P.21)
- Saudi Arabia (P. 9)
- Czechoslovakia (P. 10)
- Ceylon (P. 10)
- Ivory Coast (P. 11)
- Tanzania (P.10)
- Indonesia (P. 11)
- Ghana (P. 21)
- Cyprus (P. 21)
- Madascar (P. 21)
- Uganda (P. 21)
- Singapore (P. 11)
- Pakistan (P. 6)
- Gabon (P. 21)
- India (P.12)
- Chile (P.12)
- Vatica (P.12)
- Vietnam (P. 13)
- Colombia (P.13)
- Nepal (P. 21)
- Ecuador (P. 21)
- Peru (P. 21)
- Italy (P. 13)
- Central Africa (P. 21)
- Argentina (P. 14)
- Brazil (P. 14)
- Nigeria (P. 21)
- Abu Dhabi (P. 14)
- Iran (P. 6)
- Malaysia (P. 15)
- Afghanistan (P. 21)
- El Salvador (P. 21)
- Cambodia (P. 21)
- Malta (P. 21)
- Venezuela (P. 21)
- Monaco (P. 21)
- Nicaragua (P. 21)
- Panama (P. 21)
- Costa Rica (P. 21)
- Uruguay (P. 21)
- Mauritius (P. 21)
- Sierra Leone (P. 21)
- Ireland (P. 21)
- Asia Development Bank (P. 15)
- United Nations (P. 15)
- European Community (P. 18)
- Hong Kong (P. 19)
- Quebec (P. 19)
- British Columbia (P. 18)
- Ontario (P. 19)
- Washington (P. 19)
- Haway (P. 19)
- Alaska (P. 20)
- San Francisco (P. 20)
- Munich (P. 20)
Los Angeles– (P. 20) American Park
- Kodak (P. 20) International Places (*1-A, *1-B, *2-A, *2-B, *3 and *4) – P.19
- Japanese Government (P. 22)
- Local Autonomy (P. 23)
(P. 23) Rainbow Tower
- Telecommunication (P. 23)
- Gas (P. 24)
- Wacoal-Riccar (P. 24)
- Electrium (P. 24)
- Sumitomo (P. 25)
- Takara Beautilion (P. 25)
- Iron and Steel (P. 25)
- Fuji Group (P. 26)
- Textiles (P. 26)
- Suntory (P. 26)
- Kubota (P. 27)
- Mitsui (P. 27)
- Toshiba-IHI (P. 27)
- Pepsi-Cola (P. 28)
Folkcrat (P. 28) Japan
- Furukawa (P. 28)
- Midori-kan (P. 29)
- IBM (P. 29)
- Mitsubishi (P. 30)
- Ricoh (P. 30)
- Automobile (P. 30)
- Sanyo (P. 31)
- Fuji Pan Robot (P. 31)
- Mormon (P. 31)
- Livelihood Industry (P. 32)
- Matsushita (P. 32)
- Chemical Industry (P. 32)
Theme: Imagination for Peace
This exhibition explains the postwar evolution in
Beginning with the roots of European history – from early Christianity to the Middle Ages up to the development of centralist national states and then to the scientific and industrial revolution of today after two world wars.
The visitor then gets detailed information on the European Community. The exhibits explain how the “
Before leaving the pavilion, the visitor sees an eight-minute film projected on a big screen, supplemented by a series of 17 slides.
The Hong Kong Pavilion sets out to show a large slice of the colony’s life in all its aspects – its industry, social progress, festivals, night life and internationally famous food.
The pavilion combines the contemporary with the traditional. It has two main buildings surrounded by water and dominated by 14 masts which make it stand out among neighboring pavilions. All abut one carry the bat-winged sails of fishing junks. The sails will be raised and lowered each day at a ceremony in which visitors will be invited to participate.
The main building introduces
The British Columbia Pavilion is designed to bring the beautiful natural surroundings of
The pavilion is constructed staircase fashion from Douglas fir logs cut deep in the northen interior. They range from knee-high chopping blocks to 50-meter giants.
A 35-foot-high waterfall cascades over jagged rocks and pauses briefly in a pool spanned by a wooden footbridge before plunging into a second pool at the side of the pavilion.
Passing through heavy wooden doorways carved by Indian craftsmen, visitor find themselves in a 25-seat theater. There they will see an exciting 10-minute film about the state.
Moving along the corridors of the underground maze, they reach a “floating” floor with translucent bubbles suspended from the ceiling and walls. From there they move through a psychedelic tunnel.
In addition, the pavilion will offer an industrial section and a “sky section.” At another theater there will be a five-minute slide show “Youth and the Future of British Columbia.”
QUEBEC, ONTARIO, WASHINGTON, HAWAII
From one angle the Quebec Pavilion will look like a pair of immense sails rising to a height of nearly
The four-level pavilion ocuupies an area of
In the main hall visitors will learn about life in this Canadian Province, and its natural resources.
Another area will have a multi-screen spectacle in which eight film projectors will simultaneously present views of Quebec.
Other attractions will be films of the “Bonhomme Carnival” winter festival and outdoor sports.
Theme: Progress to the Year 2000
The blue and white Ontario Pavilion at the northen edge of the fairgrounds is a simple but striking strutture.
The multi-screen slide presentation “Progress to the Year
The slides will present a multitude of color images of Ontario on a 30-meter screen.
A spectacular new multi-image color film by Academy Award-winning director Christopher Chapman of Toronto will be the main feature of the pavilion. Chapman won a Hollywood Oscar for “A Placet o Stand,” the documentary featured in the Ontario Pavilion at Expo’
Theme: The Harmony of Nature and Man
The State of Washington Pavilion, rising from multi-level shallow pools of water, is designed to give an impressiono f the waters, forests and rich lands of this state on the northwest coast of the U. S.
The pavilion features 12-minute color motion picture showing the purità and beauty of the wirldness preserved for the enjoyment and enrichment of man.
The filmed presentation, processed in Dimension 150, is the climax of the Washington State exhibit and is presented continuously at 15-minute intervals in an auditorium accomodating 500.
The feeling a woodland enviroinment is impressively maintained through out the interior of the pavilion itself. Among the features are history are history and settlement, Pacific Northwest Indian culture, and nature and resources.
The pavilion is in a native western red cedar on a prefabricated steel frame.
Hawaii’s exhibit is designed to show “That Hawaii is unique, that it is the heart of Pacific, that it is the blossoming of American society at its best, uniting East and West with its racial harmony and with its enlightened view of the role of our nation in the Pacific.”
The structure is strikingly simple in its design and in its overall appearance. It is a low, truncated cone with two extwernal appendages and with curving ramps at its entrance and exit. The main exhibition floor is a subterranean circle
There are a variety of plants on the grounds to soften and balance the rocklike appearance of the structure.
Audio-visual exhibits tell the story of Hawaii’s people living, playing, working, building a better society – a “Pacific community” in microcosm – a harmonious, dynamic and productive social and cultural integration of people: diverse but finding unity in their diversity.
SAN FRANCISCO, MUNICH, AMERIKAN PARK, KODAK
The city’s exhibition will feature a fleet of four motorie cable car replica sto transport fairgoers, and a five-unit pavilion complex.
The units will range in size from a small cable car station to the 2,816-square-foot main pavilion of the San Francisco Convention and Visitors Bureau.
The most striking feature of the pavilion’s exterior will be huge photo enlargements of San Francisco’s scenery, including a 36-by-
One building will house a collection of paintings and sculptures by thirty-five Bay Area artists. Another building fronting a large open-air plaza will contain exhibits on the state’s agricultural bounty.
The focal point in the plaza will be Beniamino Bufano’s statue of “St. Francis of the Guns”.
There i salso an information and reception center staffeds by 12 hostesses: six San Franciscans and six Japanese.
Theme: Bavarian Joy in Living
The Muncih House will provide visitors to EXPO ’70 with a picture of Munich in its manifold variety – as a city of arts, of culture and the joy of life, as the capital of the popular tourist land of Bavaria and, by no means least, the city where the 20th Olympic Games will be held in 1972.
In the Munich information center hostesses will provide information on Munich and explain a model of the Munich Olympia sports ground exhibited there.
The main emphasis in the Munich House is on the theme “Bavarian Joy in Living.” The Munich Restaurants brings a breath of the world-famous Munich October Festival to
Theme: Photography as a Universal Language
The Eastman Kodak entry consists of three interlocking structures with a landscaped surrounding area. One of them is a striking six-sided glass tower that highlights Kodak’s “Golden Picture Pavilion.”
From a spiral ramp around the structure, visitors can photograph a fine view of the Exposition.
A many-faceted golden mirror reflects the beauty of the surrounding vistas, and by night the mirror looks like a softly glowing lantern.
The other two structures are hexagonal towers painted red, blue and yellow.
The pavilion has wide-ranging photographic exhibits and an information center.
Theme: Reflection from
Entertainment will be provided in many forms in a plaza at the center of the park. In addition to varied exhibits sponsored by American industry, the
About 30 countries have their exhibits at the joint pavilions in
All are situated around the Artificial Pond in the center of the Exposition site.
No. Place Section A:
Section A, which covers
No. 1 Place Section B:
Across the street is Section B, on a 1,634-square-meter (17,484-square-foot) tract. This section has five white pavilions, each in the shape of a shell.
No. 2 Place Section A:
This section, covering
The pavilions feature mirrored outer walls which reflect the images of passersby. Walking along the narrow streets, fairgoers feel as if they were in a busy shopping district, looking into show windows.
No. 2 Place Section B:
This section, with an area of
No. 3 Place:
Four Asian countries –
The Nepalese structure is modeled after a famous temple in
The roof of the Afghanistan Pavilion symbolizes the Hindu Kush mountain range, and the
No. 4 Place:
Three unique pavilions of the United Arab Republic,
The UAR Pavilion, in the shape of a pyramid, is
The building of
Japanese exhibitors at EXPO ’70 comprise the Japanese Government, three public corporations and 28 private enterprises, all of which have their own pavilions.
The Japanese structures are spread throughout the bowl-shape site in the Senri Hills.
The buildings housing national and industrial exhibits rise in curlicues or have twisted roofs showing imaginative conceptions of avant-garde architecture.
At the center of the shallow bowl that holds the fair are Theme Pavilion and the
The largest pavilion, covering
Close to the Japanese Government Pavilion are the pavilions of three public corporations – the Rainbow Tower of the Japan Monopoly Corporation, the Telecommunication Pavilion and the Local Autonomy Pavilion.
Many of the structures built by giant industrial groups and enterprises of
Standing majestically at the eastern end of the Expo site is the Japan Pavilion built by the Japanese Government.
Looking like gigantic drums are its five cylindrical white-wall structures arranged in the shape of the EXPO ’70 emblem which symbolizes a cherry blossom (the national flower), and the unity of five continents.
A central plaza with an 80-meter-tall column in the center will serve as the starting point for a tour of the five halls of Expo’s biggest pavilion.
The pavilion, covering a tract of some
Hall 1 features the past of
Hall 2 will focus on the industrial power and human power that support today’s
Aspects of tomorrow’s
In Hall 5 the film “
LOCAL AUTONOMY, RAINBOW TOWER, TELECOMMUNICATION
Theme: Local Government Forging Ahead –
An intimate picture of
The structure has three sections: overall displays, displays featuring the eight regional blocs, and rest and recreation facilities.
The exhibits are intended to introduce the changing and dynamic face of various regions and to show how the wisdom of local residents keeps autonomy going and growing.
Hall No. 1 and Hall No. 2 have displays showing the evolution, present conditions and future prospects of
Theme: Peace of Mind
As the theme suggests, the exhibition emphasizes rest and relaxation of visitors to the pavilion by providing them with a quiet environment for meditation and self-reflection. The displays are unique in that they are arranged with the sole aim of “awakening the mind.”
The program presented here consists of a “smoke” show and the screening of a film on three walls. Spectators experience a dreamy environment created by smoke and light effects.
After the show, visitors go to a semicircular area where a film on
The film is followed by relaxation at the “Forum of Rest” and “
Theme: Man and Communications
This pavilion describes in detail the development of means of communications, and features wireless telephones, huge TV screens called “Eidophor” and many other achievements in technology.
The exhibits are in three sections: a worm-shape steel-frame “introduction passage,” an exhibition hall and a triangular building. In the “introduction passage,” visitors will see babies of various nationalities on screen and hear their voices – the beginning of communication. They will be taken by escalator to the exhibition hall to inspect the latest devices in the telecommunications field including the wireless push-button telephones with which people can telephone their acquaintances in whatever part of the country they may be.
GAS, WACOAL – RICCAR, ELECTRIUM
Theme: World of Laughter
A surprise of the “laughter” exhibition at the Gas Pavilion is that the idea of adorning it with a mural by world-famous Joan Miro was that of Tsuneari Fukuda, a noted forbidding-looking literary critic.
The Spanish-born artist’s mural, “naïve laughter,” will be a highlight of the gourd-shaped pavilion.
Visitors to the Gas Pavilion will be taken by escalator to an area for a movie entitled “Story of Laughter.”
Miro’s “naïve laughter” will be in a nearby area in a fantasy atmosphere created with the aid of light, sound and fountains. Some of his other works will be on exhibit there.
Also displayed will be many items related to diverse forms of laughter which have been features of literary and artistic works.
This pavilion, jointly sponsored by two firms well known to women, will stage weddings during Expo for couples of various nationalities. The ceremonies, taking places on Saturdays and Sundays, will total 52.
There will be colourful pageants in the traditional style of each country. The pavilion will displays the world’s wedding attire and accessories.
The round, glass-walled pavilion divides its space into “love” and “rest” sections, putting emphasis on the idea that love is the principal source of happiness.
A storyless movie deals with the complexity of love in human relationships.
At the space of rest, background music will be constantly heard, and a nerve-soothing atmosphere will be created by means of lighting effects.
Theme: Man and Energy
This pavilion jointly built by the nine largest electric power companies of
The pavilion is situated next to
The main section of the pavilion is a “stadium of electric power,” nicknamed Electrium, which is suspended from four steel columns
The floating stage is supported by three pneumatic pontoons, each three meters in diameter and
Exhibits will reveal much about nuclear power generation through audio-visual displays.
SUMITOMO, TAKARA BEAUTILION, IRON AND STEEL
Theme: Familiar Fairy-tales of the World
The Sumitomo EXPO’70 exhibition creates a world of fairy tales to entertain children and to revive memories of childhood in the minds of adults.
The Sumitomo Fairytale Pavilion has a unique design resembling nine flying saucers in formation.
Visitors will enter the central dome via flights of escalators and then move on to other exhibition halls.
About 50 famous fairy tales of the world will be arranged for exhibition. A different method of presentation will be adopted at each exhibition hall.
In the theater, which will seat about 300, puppet shows incorporating rear-project motion pictures are to be staged.
Theme: Joy of Being Beautiful
Takara, a leading chair manufacturing company in
The exhibits in the pavilion are organized under two Expo subject themes, “Toward fuller enjoyment of life” and “Toward fuller engineering of our living environment.”
Beauty pageants and fashion shows will be the main attractions.
The pavilion is constructed of steel pipe and stainless steel capsules, manufactured in several plants and combined at the fair site in only seven days. The pavilion itself points to future structures, easy to build and free to expand according to need.
IRON AND STEEL
Theme: Song of Iron
The Iron and Steel Pavilion, situated between Sunday and Monday plazas, comprises two parts: a giant music hall and a foyer with an assortment of vibraphones.
The music producer in charge of creating all the sounds and music is Toru Takemitsu, who recently won world wide acclaim for his “November Steps.”
Takemitsu will present a new dimension of music which he has called a “catch-ball of sounds,” utilizing 1,300 speakers all over the hall.
Artist-producer Keizo Susami has designed laser-beam curtains that can be set up in any part of the hall. The audience will be suddenly deprived of the sight of other members of the audience or thrown into an unexperienced form of space walled in by the laser-beam curtains.
FUJI GROUP, TEXTILES, SUNTORY
Theme: Message to the 21th Century
It is no doubt that the Fuji Group’s revolutionary “air beam” pavilion will be one of the most eye-catching.
The pavilion, jointly built by 36 industrial and financial companies, is made up of 16 gigantic air tubes, each measuring four meters in diameter and
The main feature of the Fuji Group’s exhibition will be multi-vision pictures projected on an enormous screen measuring 19 by
Another feature will be a slide show in which 28 projectors produce a maximum of 168 images. Mechanically synchronized by computer, the projectors can make on picture using all of the many screens in the pavilion.
Theme: Textiles Enrich Human Life
The Textiles Pavilion is presented by the Expo Textiles Association which has as its members three textile organizations and some 30 textile-related associations.
The pavilion symbolizes the beauty of things “unfinished.” Its roof has lines characteristic of textiles.
The inside is divided into seven sections. The chief attraction will be the “space projection,” with completely new cinematographic effects employing 10 film and eight slide projectors.
Exhibits will also show the contrast between “the world of virtual images” and “the world of real images.” Visitors will be exposed to various virtual images as they go through the pavilion.
The textile display section will show the beauty and utility of textiles in a wide range of ways.
Theme: Water of Life
This pavilion, in the shape of a bamboo stalk cut aslant, is divided into front and rear halves. The front half, containing three-dimensional displays and a lounge seating about 50, shows water in myriad forms in a huge and spectacular display.
The rear half forms a three-story movie theatre and a basement-level display room that resembles a dark storage place for whisky kegs. The basement in the front half unfolds joys offered by the “Water of Life” through a combination of sounds, lights and colors.
The highlight of the exhibition is a color film projected onto a mammoth 10-facet screen which dramatically depicts the relationship between man and water and also introduces traditional festivals of the world.
KUBOTA, MITSUI, TOSHIBA-IHI
Theme: Blessing of Water and Rice Culture
The architectural design of the pavilion has undergone modifications, with a cluster of square-shape exhibition halls having been replaced by a cylindrical building housing a film theatre.
On entering, visitors will see artistic displays on the origin of agriculture, dissemination of rice culture, progress made in farming technology, and what a future agricultural community may look like.
In the theatre, a movie describing rice culture in different parts of the world will be projected on three screens. It will be an epic drama of mankind, dedicated to the sun, the earth and water.
Visitors will go through a lofty corridor to a salon suspended from a tower, the landmark of the pavilion. Slide screens will revolve to be viewed by those resting in the salon.
Theme: The Creative
This pavilion composed of a cylindrical structure with a dome, features an impressive tusk-shaped symbol tower which rises
The structure also resembles a gigantic petrochemical plant.
Presented inside the pavilion will be a space revue entitled “Trip into outer space and the world of creation.” Spectators will be led onto three discs six meters in diameter which move up and down while rotating.
People will feel as if they are travelling into space in rockets, while around them the Aurora borealis and other effects are produced.
Theme: Light for Man
This pavilion to be built jointly by the Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co. and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Ltd. Will feature the semi-spherical “Global Vision” theatre suspended high in the air from the “space frame”.
A round platform
A hydraulic system will push up the disc and spectators, a weight of about 300 tons, to the second-story level.
The film will be a documentary on youths of the world, whose common task is to build the future of mankind.
The spectators will then be taken underground. A program of music, lighting effects and water effects will change according to motions of the spectators’ chairs.
PEPSI, JAPAN FOLKFRAKT, FURUKAWA
Theme: World without Boundaries
Area: 4,000 m2 (42,800 ft2)
Its combination of art and technology distinguishes the Pepsi-Cola Pavilion.
One feature is a large “Sun Track” sculpture, which tracks the sun’s path and casts a 10-foot triangular reflection of the sun to a fixed point on the pavilion.
The entrance of the pavilion is a shiny tunnel, leading to a distribution area where silver-garbed hostesses distribute earphone headsets and instruction. The headset is attached to an audio-frequency magnetic pickup in a small box carried by the visitors.
The entrance to the dimly-lit “Clam Room” has a soft floor from which the first “sound experience” is transmitted to the headsets.
From the clam-shape room, stairs lead to a dome, inside of which is a mirror 27 meters in diameter, in which images appear in many perspectives.
Theme: Beauty in Daily Life
Area: 3,070 m2 (33,000 ft2)
Unlike other pavilions’ futuristic exhibits, the Japan Folkfract Pavilion, a project initiated by the late industrialist art lover Soichiro Ohara, will place emphasis on the Japanese people’s artistic heritage. On display will be pottery, wooden and bamboo items, leather goods, paper and metal products, and dyed fabrics.
These articles, made by hand with exquisite workmanship, were intended for everyday use.
Such works of high artistic value have been produced in abundance in Japan by unknown artists. The common characteristic of the works is simplicity of form and color.
Most of the items to be exhibited in the pavilion will be lent by the Japan Folkcraft Museum in Tokyo.
Theme: Dream of Ancient and Present day Japan
Area: 4,852 m2 (52,000 ft2)
An 86-meter-tall seven-story pagoda will mark the exhibition of the Furukawa group of 29 companies.
The pagoda, a reproduction of one that once stood in the precincts of the Todaiji Temple in Nara, and the “Computopia” exhibition hall in its basement, will symbolize “Dream of Ancient and Present-day Japan.”
Two elevators will carry visitors to the top floor of the pagoda, from where they will have a splendid view of EXPO ’70.
The underground “Computopia” hall will consist of the theme exhibition space and electronics theater.
A computer called Johann “Electronics” Bach will compose music and play it on an electronic organ. Experiments will be made in identifying individuals by analyzing their voices electronically.
HITACHI, MIDORI-KAN, IBM
Theme: Search – Invitation to the Unknown
Area: 5,000 m2 (54,000 ft2)
To draw crowds, a laser television set with a 4-by-3-meter screen will show live scenes of the exhibition site and color TV programs. The new equipment, to be set up on the second floor, is the exhibitor’s proud product, developed at a cost of about ¥200 million. The screen is the largest of its kind in the world.
Another attraction of the pavilion, on the third floor, will be a simulated trip in mock-up aircraft.
The “travelers” will leave on trips of their choice after fastening safety belts and hearing instructions from steward-esses.
The saucer-shaped pavilion will be equipped with a 40-meter long escalator to carry people up to its rooftop lounge with transparent canopy, and a huge two-level cylindrical elevator.
Theme: Astrorama – Multi-dimentional World
Area: 7,289 m2 (79,000 ft2)
The colorful pavilion built by the Midori-kan enterprise group of 32 companies which features the eye-catching Astrorama will features movies projected on a vast dome.
Presenting “four dimensional pictures and dynamic sounds,” the spectacular show will engulf the spectators. They will even participate in it.
The hemispherical Astrorama screen is about 12 times as large as that of a Cinerama theater. It is 30 meters from wall to wall at the bottom and 25 meters in height.
The pavilion will also have exhibits describing how the 32 sponsoring companies including the Sanwa Bank, Ltd. Are contributing to the development of the Japanese economy and to the improvement of living standards.
Theme: Man the Problem Solver
Area: 3,666 m2 (40,000 ft2)
The IBM Pavilion will house the “Man the Problem Solver” exhibition illustrating the growing roles played by the computer.
It will have a canopied theater seating 1,000. IBM will be used for the program to be shown at the theater as well as for the operation and maintenance of the entire pavilion. They will be accommodated in a room with three glass-panel walls so that visitors will be able to see them.
The exhibition will depict “difficulties man has encountered in his quest for progress and how he has successfully labored to overcome them.” The roles of the computer will be taken up as it has “extended human problem-solving capacities to an unprecedented degree.”
MITSUBISHI, RICOH, AUTOMOBILE
Theme: Nature of Japan and Dreams of the Japanese
Area: 9,600 m2 (103,700 ft2)
Trying to visualize what Japan will be like in the next five decades is the Mitsubishi Future Pavilion.
Its exhibits are in sections, through which spectators will be taken by moving walks. In the first hall will be a simulated inferno showing the frightening aspects of nature.
The second hall’s theme is “the skies over Japan of a half century hence”. Visitors will be led into a futuristic weather control station where they will see the drama of man subduing a powerful typhoon.
In the third hall, dealing with “the seas around Japan of 50 years hence,” spectators will make an undersea trip by submarine. They will see scenes of development of seabeds, and a utopia at the ocean bottom. The last section is a huge recreation hall where visitors will participate in activities.
Theme: Enlighten through EXPO’70
Area: 3,200 m2 (35,000 ft2)
The Ricoh Pavilion east of the Symbol Area will fly a huge balloon to mark its location.
Inside the balloon, measuring 25 meters in diameter, will be projectors and electronic devices. At night, they will screen ever-changing images on the surface of the balloon, such as fireworks displays and abstract patterns.
In addition to the “floating vision,” the Ricoh exhibition has two other attractions – “space vision” is presented on the exterior wall of the cylindrical main building by film projection. The pictures will change according to the position of the viewer. The interior of the structure will feature “inside vision,” a large, quiet space designed to give visitors an unearthly sensation.
Theme: World of Rhythm
Area: 9,792 m2 (106,000 ft2)
“Engine music” composed of the sounds of about 60 engines is heard through speakers which move at high speed on rails laid around this pavilion situated near the West Gate.
The World of Rhythms exhibition takes advantage of the Doppler Effect – the apparent change in frequency and wave length of a train of sound waves as the distance between the source and the receiver changes.
The pavilion itself has a unique appearance intended to symbolize the recent rapid motorization of Japan, and the exhibit visualize the rhythmic beats of the motorized modern society and the future patterns of automobile traffic.
The structure consists of two buildings covered by tents and a 12-lane computer-controlled circuit for miniature cars.
SANYO, FUJI-ROBOT, MORMON
Theme: Heart of Japan
Area: 3,350 m2 (36,000 ft2)
The Sanyo Pavilion emphasizes harmony and elegance in Japanese architecture. Water sent from pen friends of various countries will be put into the “pond of peace” around the pavilion.
When visitors enter the pavilion, they will be reflect by a giant “health mirror.” In the center of the pavilion is “sun plaza” illuminated by an artificial sun 2.5 meters in diameter.
The four seasons of Japan will be duplicated by special-effects equipment. A bathing machine, health capsule, “flower kitchen” and all-round television will be demonstrated at the family corner. In the bathing machine, the bather sitting inside is washed and massaged by ultrasonic bubbles. The health capsule houses a color television receiver, TV telephone, stereo set and a liquor cabinet.
Theme: Children’s Dreams
Area: 1,575 m2 (17,000 ft2)
Along with Expoland, the Fuji Pan (bakery) Robot Pavilion will be an exciting playground for children.
“Robot Town” will be the main section. Here, children and their parents can spend a delightful time with the robot citizens.
In “robot theater” an orchestra of mechanical men will perform.
Visitors will be greeted by a giant robot at the entrance of the pavilion. He will walk, talk and shake hands with them farewell by stamping a seal commemorating their visit.
Theme: Man’s Search for Happiness
Area: 1,000 m2 (10,800 ft2)
To inform the Japanese people about Mormon activities, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon Church) is preparing its independent pavilion, one of two Christian pavilions.
The landmark of the two-story building will be a 15-meter-tall tower surmounted by a 2.5-meter-tall statue of the Angel Moronai, who is said to have handed to Joseph Smith, founder of the religion, gold plates bearing holy scriptures.
Visitors will see a film on the Mormon exhibition theme: “Man Search for Happiness.”
LIVELIHOOD INDUSTRY, MATSUSHITA, CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Theme: Day in, Day out
Area: 5,873 m2 (103,700 ft2)
The Livelihood Industry Pavilion is presented jointly by about 130 enterprises and 30 organizations.
The family in the morning, working people, recreation, happiness of home life, and nocturnal fantasia will be features of the five sections.
At the end of the exhibition hall will be a revolving theater with five chambers, each having seating for 100.
The Kinoautomat, as the theater is called, will show four movies at each of which spectators will see a new stage of the four seasons of the year.
At the fifth move, the spectators will return to the starting point and will disembark from the chamber.
At a plaza in front of the pavilion restaurant, festival of Japan will be with “Ennichi” stalls.
Theme: Traditional and Development
Area: 9,600 m2 (103,700 ft2)
There are two main features at the pavilion built by the Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Japan’s leading electronics and home electrical appliance manufacturer, and its affiliated companies.
One is Time Capsule EXPO’70, designed to preserve a cultural and scientific legacy of the 20th Century for 5,000 years.
The other main feature is a presentation of the Japanese tradition, particularly its spiritual aspects, by turning the entire pavilion site into a setting that exudes an atmosphere which can be felt in no other place except Japan.
The pavilion, designed in Tempyo style which is regarded as the acme of Japanese architecture, will be surrounded by a thick grove of bamboo plants numbering some 10,000.
Theme: Chemistry and Human Life
Area: 4,377 m2 (47,300 ft2)
The modern-day alchemist of Japan will show their latest magic in “Chemical Fantasia-land” at the pavilion of the Japan Chemical Industry Association.
The exhibition will also suggest the boundless possibilities of the chemical industry in fantastic displays.
The pavilion itself will be constructed with chemical materials. Its hexagonal design represents the make-up of a molecule.
“Chemical Fantasia-land” will have four sections – theme space, chemical fantasia and animation theater, chemical show space, and a chemical garden with a restaurant.
Fantastic and abstract methods will be employed throughout the pavilion. There will be two screens on the ceiling of chemical fantasia hall upon which whirls of colored light will be projected to the sound of electronic music.
MANAGUA, stretching along the shores of Lake Managua is Nicaragua’s booming, sprawling modern capital. It boasts every comfort and convenience plus an exciting list of opportunities for sightseeing and recreation. Among the highlights is the Presidential Hill (also known as Tiscapa) site of the magnificent Chief Executive’s Mansion in beautiful Moorish architectural style, affording a gorgeous panoramic view of the city, lakes and distant volcanoes.
CORN ISLANDS. Incredible, palm-fringed tropical paradise untouched by civilization. Miles of alluring snowy-white beaches glisten in the warm sun against the backdrop of blue-green, gently rolling surf.
Water is transparently clear, inviting enjoyment of unparalleled skin diving, swimming and fishing forty miles off the coastal town of Bluefields.
GRANADA, enchanting city, gateway to “Las Isletas” – Lake Nicaragua’s emerald-green version of the “Thousand Islands” – which dot vast portions of spectacular lake. The stately buildings and atmosphere in Granada are a living page of Colonial and American history and tradition. Lofty multi-hued Mombacho Volcano dominates the landscape.
MATAGALPA, delightful mountain playground north of Managua in a Swiss Alps setting, offers unsurpassed hunting, fresh-water fishing in crystal-clear rivers and streams, miles of thrilling hiking trails and a vivid variety of birds ant other wild life. “Dude-ranch living” is the order of the day.
RIVERS. In addition to the two largest lakes in Central America, Nicaragua is famous for its beautiful rivers – some of which, like Rio San Juan, are said by experts to provide the finest tarpon fishing anywhere.
LEON. Splendid cathedral here is a masterpiece of baroque Colonial architecture, one of the truly outstanding structures of its kind in the Americas. It is a treasure chest of religious art, sculpture and magnificently carved altars, it is also the resting place of Nicaragua’s world-renowned poet, Ruben Dario, and known as the “City of Arts.”
SEIKO ATOMIC-UHF TIME SYSTEM
The name of the system is derived from the fact that the super accurate time signals, regulated by atomic frequencies, are transmitted via a UHF radio transmission system to the UHF receiver portion of each of the 110 satellite clocks operated by the time system.
The two principal part of the system are 1) the atomic frequency unit which produces the super-high-frequencies for regulating the time signals emitted by Quantum Optical System 2) the highly accurate crystal oscillator time unit which produces the time signals.
Both these units, the heart of the time system, are located inside the 3-sided body of the modernistic Time Center.
The satellite clocks will consists of varying sizes of both the digital and standard face types.
The architectural beauty of the 70 meters high tower soaring conspicuously skyward at the EXPO site, and seven-colored rainbow arching in the sky.
“Rising High Up Into The Sky”
(The Rainbow Tower)
A cone-shaped and rainbow-colored tower standing in the midst of a lawn-this is our 70 meters high pavilion, “The Rainbow Tower”. The interior is three floors; our major programs, “Smoke Show” and “Image Show” are presented on the second floor. The first floor is designed for the prologue to the show. The audience enters the mystic world of the Smoke Show from the mezzanine: A 140-seat circular auditorium raises them gently up through the ceiling and into the performance.
“The Smoke Show”
Once you step inside the pavilion you will be in a world of dim light. Strange smoke of surrealistic patterns, fills the room. The smoke changes its shape into clouds, a smoke-fall, smoke rings, and finally into the figures of Adam and Eve.
“The Image Show”
A huge three-section screen. On this screen appear segments of Japanese society, her traditional arts and picturesque nature. On stage, famous artists of Japanese classical dances appear in person to overlap the screen presentation. The images on the screen and the live performers together create a new art.
“The Theme Present To You”
(Peace Of Mind)
The cone-shaped building zooming high above the EXPO site is the pavilion of the Japan Monopoly Corporation; the Rainbow Tower. In good weather, a real rainbow arches over the tower.
The theme is “Peace of Mind”.
GREETINGS FROM THE LAND OF LENIN
This is a short accounts of the Soviet Union, the country that after the 1917 October Revolution started in to build a new, socialist society, the first in the history of mankind.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a federal state, formed on the basis of a voluntary union of 15 equal republics.
You will learn about the country’s economic development, the discoveries of Soviet scientist and the prospects for extending economic, scientific and cultural contacts with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual advantage.
Welcome to the Soviet Pavilion!
This is the land of Tolstoy and Gorky, Tchaikosky and Shostakovich, the land of the world’s first sputnik and the first man to blaze a trail in outer space…
We are 240 million.
The USSR is a family of 130 peoples and nationalites.
The TU-144 supersonic passenger liner, pride of Soviet aviation.
COME AND SEE SOMETHING OF THE SOVIET UNION
The Soviet Union stretches across part of Europe and Asia. Its borders, which extend for 1.5 times the length of the equator, touch on 12 countries and are washed by 144 seas and oceans.
The nation sees in the New Year 11 times since the country crosses 11 time zones.
One thousand out of nearly 2,000 towns and cities have sprung up since the 1917 Revolution. The capital – Moscow – has a population of 6.5 million. Other big cities (with over one million residents) are Leningrad, Baku, Tashkent, Kiev, Gorky, Novosibirsk, Kharkov, Kuibyshev and Sverdlosk.
The Soviet Union is the world’s biggest country. It occupies an area of nearly 9 million sq. miles, which is one-sixth of the populated section of the globe.
It extends for 3,100 miles from north to south and 6,200 miles from east to west. When dusk descends in the Baltic, a new day breaks in Kamchatka in the Pacific.
The physiography of the country varies from the Russian plains, the Siberian taiga forests and the Arctic tundra to the subtropics of the Caucasian coast of the Black Sea, the Pamir Mountains and the deserts of Central Asia.
Dwarf birches and polar owls are found on the Arctic coast and evergreen palms and pink flamingoes in the south. The temperature in North-Eastern Siberia may drop below 96° F, whereas in Turkmenia summer temperature may reach 105 F°.
There are over 100 thousand rivers in the Soviet Union. The Lena is the longest (2,700 miles), the Ob has the biggest basin area, and the Yenisey is the deepest, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, the highest volcano of Europe and Asia, are both in the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union possesses almost all the known minerals. It has the world’s greatest reserves of iron and manganese ores, lead, copper, tungsten, coal, potassium salts, apatite and timber, and power resources.
The October Revolution turned the land over to those who till it, made the means of production the property of the whole of society and ended exploitation of man by man.
It eliminated national and racial inequality, granted all the peoples the right to self-determination, did away with poverty, eliminated unemployment and ensured everyone the right to work.
The Revolution ushered in an epoch of profound cultural transformations: illiteracy was wiped out, education and treasures of universal culture became available to all.
The right to work proclaimed by the USSR Constitution is guaranteed by the continuous planned economic development, the construction of new industrial enterprises, etc. Thus, any possibility of unemployment is ruled out.
Social status is above all determined by the individual’s work, knowledge and ability. This is only possible in a society governed by the working people themselves through their representative bodies – the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies. The Su-
CIVIL RIGHTS TO ALL WORKING PEOPLE
preme Soviet is the highest legislative body. It has two equal chambers: the Soviet of the Union, representing the population as a whole, regardless of nationality. A law is considered valid when it is passed by both chambers. The elections to the Supreme Soviet are held every four years. The Supreme Soviet also appoints the USSR Government.
The local Soviets govern the territories, regions, districts, towns and villages. The over 2 million elected deputies are assisted by more than 25 million citizens who work in the Soviets at all levels. One can be elected to a Republican Supreme Soviet at the age of 21, and the age of 23. Elections to all the Soviets are based on universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot.
The deputies are not professional politicians. They combine their activities in the Soviets with work at enterprises and institutions. This enables them always to be in touch with the electors and, as for the Soviets, it strengthens their ties with the people. The deputies have to report on their work to their electors twice a year. If the electors find their deputy is unable to cope with the work in the Soviets, they have the right to recall him.
The Soviets are the political foundation of the Soviet state. This is a form of self-government which gives millions of people an opportunity to take part in the activities vitally influencing their everyday life.
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The Communist Party of the Soviet Union is a political organization of like-minded people-Communists. It has a membership of over 13 million people of different nationalities from various social strata-workers, farmers and intellectuals.
Along with the Communists the Left-wing Social Revolutionaries. In the summer of 1918 they launched an armed rebellion against the Soviet Government and were defeated. Only one political party-the Communist Party-remained.
“All in the name of man, for the benefit of man!” –this is the meaning of the Comunist Party’s home policy. In its foreign policy activities the Communist Party upholds the cause of peace. The CPSU home and foreign policies have the full support of the nation.
The CPSU does not take the place of any state agencies. It channels the people’s creative effort into the construction of a better life and educates the people to be convinced builders of communism. Non-Party people take an active part in the work of the USSR Supreme Soviet and the Republican Supreme Soviets and local Soviets along with the Communists.
There are many public organizations in the Soviet Union. The biggest is the trade union with a membership of 86 million. All employees of one plant, factory or institution are members of the same trade union regardless of their professions and jobs. The trade union dues do not exceed one per cent of the salary.
The trade unions are in charge of the insurance fund; they see to the observance of labour laws (not a single employee can be discharged without the trade union’s agreement); take part in drawing up labour laws; and concern themselves with improving living conditions. The trade unions run thousands of sanatoriums, rest homes, young pioneers’ camps, cultural and sports establishments. The trade unions have their press.
The Young Communist League-the Komsomol-has a membershio of over 23 million. The Komsomol’s chief objective is to bring up young people in the spirit of the ideas of communism and democracy, eager participants in communist construction. The Komsol takes part in solving all problems concerning young people, seeks to improve their living and working conditions, provides for their recreation, helps children’s organizations and promotes sports.
Other youth organizations include the Committee of Youth Organizations of the USSR comprised of over 40 different youth organizations. It maintains extensive contacts with the youth in other countries.
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The Union of Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, the Soviet Peace Committee, the Soviet Women’s Committee and the Soviet Committee for Solidarity whit Asian and African Countries promote friendship and cooperation between the peoples of the Soviet Union and others countries.
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In the Soviet Union the Church is separated from the State and the School. The citizen are guaranteed freedom of consciousness which means that all are free either to profess any of the religions or be atheist.
The State does not interfere with the citizens’ religious beliefs, religion is considered a private affair. All citizens enjoy equal rights, regardless of whether they are religious or not. A person’s faith is never stated in any official document.
There are religious organizations of the Russian Orthodox, Georgian Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Roman Catholic, Evangelic Lutheran and Evangelic Reformist, Methodist and Baptist Churches, as well as Moslem, Buddhist and Jewish associations.
The October Revolution eliminated women’s inequality, which was a distinctive feature of tsarist Russia. The Soviet women enjoy equal rights with men. Among the scientific workers 273.5 thousand are women, including 43 thousand doctors and candidates of sciences. Women hold the posts of ministers, plan directors, presidents of the national republics and collective farm managers. Eighty per cent of Soviet doctors are women. There are women professors, judges, pilots and ship captains. Valentina Tereshkova, the first and so far the only woman in history to fly into outer space as navigator of Vostok-6, symbolizes all the changes that have taken place in the life of women in Soviet times.
THE RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-6.6 mln. sq. miles
The Russian Federation is the biggest republic of the USSR. It is called a federation because it includes 100 big and small nationalities united in Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Regions and National Areas. Four-fifths of the population are Russians.
Russia is situated in Europe and in Asia. The European part is a plain where fields alternate with industrial regions, through which the Volga flows. The Asian part, which stretches from the Urals to the Pacific, is called Siberia.
The Russian Federation plays a prominent part in the national economy, culture and science. Its mineral wealth is diverse. The plants and factories turn out two-thirds of the aggregate industrial production and the farms supply more than half the Soviet Union’s commodity grain.
Russia is rich in timber which is exported along with the other important item-from TU jet planes to linen fabrics. The Russian Federation is an important producer of the world’s most powerful hydraulic and steam turbines and generators, motor vehicles, hydrofoil ships, various machine-tools and instruments.
Moscow, the capital of the Russian Federation, is also the capital of the country. It is the nation’s main political, scientific and cultural centre.
Leningrad is second in size and importance (3,296,000). It is the cradle of the Socialist Revolution, a city famous for its art museums.
UKRAINIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-232 thou. sq. miles
The Ukraine is the second biggest (after Russia) state in Europe. It is a land of vast steppes on the left bank of the Dnieper and dense forests on the right bank, Alpine meadows and crystal-clear rivers in the Carpathians, and golden beaches along the Black Sea coast.
Nature did not spare the Ukraine its wealth. Part of it is the fertile black soil. The Ukraine is a principal producer of wheat, rye, sugar beets, sun-flower seed and other crops. The farmers also engage in cattle and poultry breeding.
The Dnieper Region is an industrial area stretching for hundreds of miles down to the Black Sea. It receives its electricity from the five stations of the Dnieper power grid built during the last three decades.
Ukrainian industry is based on the mining of iron ore in Krivoi Rog and the manganese ores and coal in the Donets Basin (Donbass). The Ukraine manufactures rolling mills, turbines, generators, planes, tractors and steam locomotives. Something like 1,000 items are exported to 80 countries. In the per capita production of coal, iron ore, iron and steel the Ukraine is ahead of the rest of the world.
The Ukraine is a member of the United Nations and other international organizations.
BYELORUSSIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area – 80 thous. sq. miles
Population – 8.8 mln.
Capital – Minsk
Byelorussia is a land of lakes and forests. The famous Byelovezhskaya Wildlife Preserve is one of the biggest in the west of the Republic. There you can find the auroch, the rarest animal surviving from the Ice Age.
Tremendous reserves of potassium and table salts (estimated at thousands of millions of tons) have been discovered. There are inexhaustible reserves of Byelorussian peat and oil and iron ore deposits.
Before 1917 Byelorussia, particularly its southern part, the Polesie, was considered the poorest and most backward province. But now Byelorussia manufactures sophisticated machinery and chemical goods and has well-developed wood processing, light and food industries; it is an important producer of flax and potatoes.
Minsk, the Byelorussian capital, is the main industrial centre of the Republic. It exports tip-up lorries, the “Byelarus” tractors and other items to more than 60 countries.
Much is done by way of land improvement and expansion of arable lands. Drainage turns boggy areas into fine fields and grazing lands.
Byelorussia is a member of the United Nations. It works for general peace an international cooperation.
UZBEK SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area – 173.6 thous. sq. miles
Population – 11.2 mln.
Capital – Tashkent
Uzbekistan is situated in Central Asia, in the south of the Soviet Union. The Kyzyl Kum desert, a great plane of dunes and practically no vegetation, takes up most of Uzbek territory. The climate is hot and dry.
The regions at the foothills of the Thien Shan, the Pamir and the Altai mountains nourished by water from mountain glaciers, are the area of oases. Their age-old culture lives on in the magnificent architectural monuments of Bukhara and Samarkand.
Since time immemorial cotton has been Uzbekistan’s main crop and the Republic is still the country’s main cotton producer. In Soviet times hundreds of new canals, complete with reservoirs and pumping stations, have been built to assist the ancient irrigation system.
Silk-worm cultivation and caracul breeding are other traditional industries. The Uzbek caracul pelts are in great demand on the world market.
New industries include the production of chemical goods, power generation, non ferrous metallurgy, mining, coal production, oil and gas industries and oil refining.
Frequent earthquakes have not spared the Uzbek capital Tashkent which was greatly damaged in 1966. At present the city is being restored. As before international seminars and conferences are often held there.
KAZAKH SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-1,053.3 thous. sq. miles
Kazakhstan, the second largest Soviet republic, is situated to the south and east of the Urals. Most of it consists of steppes and deserts to the south and the Thien Shan mountains in the extreme south.
Formerly Kazakhstan was a backward province of tsarist Russia, a land primarily engaged in primitive cattle breeding. Today, in the centre of the Kazakh steppes lies Baikonur, the Soviet cosmodrome from which Yuri Gagarin was the first to explore outer space.
But before the space flights began, Kazakhstan had become famous as a country of pioneers-of young men and women who had come there from all parts of the Soviet Union to develop new lands. The places where the first newcomers lived in tents a few years ago are now modern agricultural towns supplying the nation with considerable amounts of wheat and meat.
Just as in the neighbouring republics of Central Asia lack of water is the major problem facing Kazakh agriculture. Scientists are working on projects of diverting part of the water of the northern rivers southward, but in the meantime ways are being sought to make a more effective use of the water reserves on hand.
Kazakhstan heads the Soviet republics in reserves of copper, chrome, lead, zinc, silver and tungsten. Consequently the key industries here are ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy.
GEORGIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-29.9 thous. sq. miles
Georgia is a country of Alpine skiing routes and seacoast resorts. The Caucasian Mountains, some of the peaks towering 16.5 feet above sea level, are intersected with fertile valleys descending to the warm Black Sea. Every year hundreds of thousands of people from all over the country and medical treatment.
Georgian farmers grow tea, citrus fruits and grapes from which more than 40 fine brands of wine are made. Georgia produces 97 per cent of the nation’s tea output. The “Sakartvelo” tea-leaf picking machine designed in Tblisi, has done away with the hard and tedious job of picking tea leaves by hand.
The clear mountain air, ample fruit and perhaps the curative properties of the dry wines could well be what helps many Georgians live to be a hundred and over (51 people per thousand).
There are considerable reserves of oil, coal and non-ferrous metals. The Chiatury deposit of manganese ore is one of the richest in the world both in quantity and quality of the ore.
Mining and steel production are important aspects of Georgian economy. Power generation, engineering and the motor industry are also well developed.
National crafts, particularly the output of chased metalware and ceramics are thriving along with modern industries. These arts which are handed down from generation to generation, bespeak ancient Georgian culture, as do the magnificent architectural monuments: fortresses, monasteries and the famous cave city of Vardzia.
AZERBAIJAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-33.4 thous. sq miles.
Azerbaijan is the easternmost republic in the Transcaucasus. It is situated on the slopes of the Caucausus and in the river valleys and is washed by the Caspian Sea. In the north of the Republic the sea often freezes in winter while the Lenkoran in the south is in the subtropics.
The climate is good for farming and Azerbaijan supplies the Transacaucasus with wheat. It also grows fine cotton. Water is scarce and irrigation is a vital necessity. Irrigation work goes hand in hand with land improvement: land drainage taking away salty water to the sea prevents an accumulation of salt in the ground.
Azerbaijan’s real wealth is oil-there are tremendous deposits on the Apsheron Peninsula, where the capital Baku is situated, and in the Caspian. Before the last war the word Baku was synonymous with Soviet oil. After the war considerable reserves of oil were discovered on the Volga and in Siberia but Baku still remains a principal oil producing region.
As prospecting and mining progressed the oil derricks moved further and further out into the sea and now a whole town on piles – Neftyanyne Kamni (Oil Rocks) – has sprung up in the open sea not far from Baku.
Along with the oil refining and chemical industries engineering and steel industries are developing. Among the other minerals of Azerbaijan copper and cobalt should be mentioned. Azerbaijan mineral water springs posses valuable curative properties.
LITHUANIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-25.1 thous. sq. miles
Lithuania is the southernmost of the three Baltic Republics. It is also the most wooded. The scenery is beautiful: wooded hills alternate with lakes, rivers and flood-plains. In one of the 90 state reserves there is a 2,000-year-old oak.
Rich grazing lands are abundant and cattle breeding is thriving. Farming is concentrated on the growing of cereals and flax. Vast expanses of land are waterlogged and large-scale drainage is underway.
Lithuania has many minerals, the most significant being peat. Deposits are estimated in the vicinity of 4,000 million tons.
Lithuanian industry, particularly metal working, is well-developed. Its grinding and drilling machines, electrical welding equipment and textiles are exported to 70 countries.
Despite the short summer large numbers of people holiday at the famous resorts in Palanga and Nida. Thousands of tourists go sightseeing all over the Republic which has numerous architectural and historical monuments.
MOLDAVIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-12.7 thous. sq miles.
Moldavia, a republic with a small territory and population, is a plain situated between the Dnestr and Prut rivers flowing into the Black Sea. Considerable tracks of oak and other deciduous trees are being preserved.
Tobacco is an important crop along with fruits for which the Republic is famous. Moldavia is one of the principal suppliers of fruits, grapes and wines. Moldavian wines are highly valued in Europe and win medals at international exhibitions. The republican Academy of Sciences assists the 250 wineries by developing new varieties of grapes and applying mathematical methods in the assessment of their qualities.
The fine quality of grapes and fruits is largely due to the mild climate and fertile black soil which is over three feet deep in some areas. There are also considerable reserves of limestone, gypsum and raw materials for ceramics.
Engineering, electrical engineering, instrument making and other industries are developing.
The country’s population density – over a hundred people per sq. km-is a factor promoting diversified economic development.
LATVIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-24.3 thous. sq. miles
Population – 2.3 mln.
Capital – Riga
Latvia is is situated on the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic. The picturesque scenery-a combination of beaches and pine-covered dunes – attracts thousands of people to the famous resort of Yurmala stretching for tens of miles to the south of Riga.
Latvian agriculture specializes in cattle and pig breeding and in vegetable and flax growing.
Among the more significant minerals are peat, limestone and dolomite. Amber is very common and although the reserve are not large, it attracts industry and tourists alike. It is found in the ground or on the sea coasts brought in with the tide. It is used for jewelry and souvenirs. It is said to posses curative properties.
Amber wares are a traditional item of Latvian export along with the popular Riga transistor radios and Riga cosmetics.
The goods turned out by the Latvian radio industry and electrical engineering, instrument making, transport engineering and motor industries are in great demand on home market. The wood processing, pulp and paper and chemical industries are also well developed.
Decorative art is very popular in the Republic which is Known for its woodenware.
KIRGHIZ SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area – 76.4 thous. sq. miles
Population – 2.8 mln.
Capital – Frunze
Kirghizia is situated on the Tien Shan mountain slopes. Some ranges are over 15,000 feet high and are permanently covered with ice and there are gorges about 1,500 feet deep. The Kirghiz are used to seeing the clouds below rather than above, for more than a third of Kirghiz territory is over 9,000 feet above sea level. High in the mountains lies Lake Issyk Kul, one of the most beautiful spots on earth.
Fruits is grown in the valleys and fine-fleeced sheep graze in Alpine meadows. The Kirghiz also breed the local horse which is well acclimatized to the severe weather conditions.
The development of irrigation has enabled Kirghizia to meet its demand for agricultural produce and supply the national market with cotton, tobacco and essential oils.
There are large deposits of mercury, antimony and other minerals. Kirghiz antimony is greatly valued on the world market and Kirghiz machine-tools, electronic instruments and electrical equipment are well regarded.
Only a generation ago Kirghizia was a backward country whose population were mostly nomad cattle breeders whereas today sophisticated industries are developing there. It is now an advanced country with a high cultural standard and developed science, the major trends being geology, mining, metallurgy and irrigation.
TAJIK SOVIET SOCIALIST
Are-55.2 thous. sq. miles
Population -2.7 mln.
Tajikistan is a land of sun, high mountains, deep narrow gorges and turbulent rivers. Desert alternate with oases; mountain forests with glaciers, major portion of Tajikistan is occupied by the Parmirs called the “Roof of the World”.
Tajikistan is rich in zinc, lead, rare non-ferrous and precious metals, iron, coal, oil, gas, antimony and mercury.
But even more important is Tajik cotton. The Republic gets record yields of fine-fibre cotton. Apricots, pomegranates and grapes are also grown. Sheep, goats, horses and yaks are bred in the highlands.
Some fifty years ago Tajik did not even know the meaning of the word “electricity” and now power generation is developing rapidly. One of the country’s biggest power stations (the dam is 990 feet high) is now under construction on the Vakhsh. The station’s reservoir will supply water for the irrigation system of the Vakhsh valley. There are plants producing farm-machinery parts, automatic looms, electrical equipment and cotton plant.
Tajik goods-cotton, fruits, silk fabrics and marvelous carpets-are shipped to other parts of the Soviet Union and abroad. The steel framework for oil fields and oil refineries is exported to 30 countries.
The Tajik are experts at carving, inlaid work, carpet making and embroidery.
ARMENIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-11.3 thous. sq. miles
Armenia, a Transcaucasian republic, is the smallest of the Soviet Republics. It is a mountainous country with peaks 13,120 feet above sea level, and lower lying areas convenient for cattle breeding. Farming is concentrated in the valleys.
Lake Sevan, situated 6,600 feet above sea level, is the source of the Razdan river on which a cascade of power stations has been built.
Viticulture is the basis of Armenian agriculture. The constantly improved varieties make wonderful wines and the cognac for which Armenia is famous.
The Ararat Valley, the chief agricultural region of the Republic, is where most of the vineyards, orchards and plantations of industrial crops are concentrated. Armenia’s agricultural progress depends on irrigations. At present canals are being dug to supply water to the Sevan whose level is falling due to increased water consumption. Industry requires an adequate water supply, particularly non-ferrous metallurgy producing copper, molybdenum and aluminium. Armenia has abundant reserves of these ores.
The chemical industry, electrical engineering and the manufacture of stone-cutting machines are making rapid headway. Armenia is rich in the reserves of tufa, pumice, basalt and marble, which are mostly used as cheap building materials. The Armenian capital, Yerevan, dating back to the time of Rome, is wholly made of tufa.
Of special interest among Armenia’s historical antiquities is Etchmiadzin, the Armenian spiritual and religious centre, 9 miles from Yerevan.
TURKMEN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-188.4 thous. sq. miles
Turkmenia is the southernmost and warmest Soviet Republic. Most of its territory is the Kara Kum deser, but a modern irrigation system has created oases and watered lands in the desert where million of sheep graze. The water is taken from the Amu Daria river flowing from the Amu Daria river flowing from the Parmirs to the Aral Sea. The Kara Kum canal building projegt envisages a 930-mile canal to connect the Amu Daria with the Caspian Sea and supply millions of hectares of desert land with water. A480-mile section of the canal has already been completed, supplying water to Ashkhabad, the capital. Before that Ashkhabad had strict system of water rationing. There has been a sharp increase in the yields of the fine-fibre cotton and the supply of world-famous Turkmen caracul.
Modern Turkmenia does not confine itself to agriculture. Today the Republic holds third place in the country in the production of oil, and the explored gas-bearing area is steadily increasing. Almost the whole of the desert between the Caspian Sea and the Amu Daria is an oil-and-gas-bearing field.
At the present oil is mined in the vicinity of the Caspian. Production will go up as soon as the Kara Kum canal reaches this industrial area which at present feels the lack of water.
The Turkmen chemical industry is based on local raw materials particularly the salt deposits on the gulf of Kara Bogaz Gol in the Caspian. The hot climate has turned it into a tremendous natural evaporator which steps up salt concentration many times over and the salt settles on the shores.
The development of the chemical industry also promotes engineering.
ESTONIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
Area-17.4 thous. sq. miles
Estonia has the smallest population. It borders on Latvia in the south and the Russian Federation in the north. As in the other Baltic Republics the climate is cool and damp and there are large wooded areas. It differs in the great number of lakes-more than 1,500 of them-and isles in the Baltic. Fishing is a thriving industry.
The more important minerals include bituminous shales, phosphorite and peat. Since shale is the only fuel available in Estonia, it is used to produce petrol and gas as well as lubricant oils, plastics, varnish, fertilisers and building materials.
Electrical engineering, radio production and instrument making are the main industries. Estonian foodstuffs, especially meat and dairy products, are known throughout the country. The Republic goes in for cattle breeding and raising hogs on damp soil is very suitable for this.
Some areas are water logged or even boggy and large-scale drainage is under way.
The Socialist Revolution of October 1917, the setting up of the Soviet state on the territory of old tsarist empire and its subsequent development are all associated with Lenin (1870-1924). Lenin founded the party of Russian Communists which led the Russian workers and peasants in the struggle in which the people seized power. He headed the first Soviet Government.
At the turn of the 20th century in no country had social and political contradictions become so acute as in Russia.
In semi-feudal conditions the people not only suffered from capitalist exploitation but also from the landlord arbitrariness, political despotism and national oppression.
The First World War was a factor that brought the poverty and suffering of the people to the breaking point and exposed the decadence and impotence of tsarist autocracy, and later, of the Provisional Government. According to Lenin, those days the air was being charged with electricity which was bound to fulminate in a cleansing storm.
The Revolution of 1917 was not merely a change of political power, it also signified a profound socio-economic upheaval.
The Soviet Union was the first country to embark on the path of socialism.
The French writer Romain Rolland described the Russian Revolution as the greatest social endeavour, the most powerful and most fruitful. “This time,” he said, “humanity has taken a new step forward, a step more important than that which divided the French Revolution from the old regime”.
THE REVOLUTION HAS WON!
The Revolutionary Appeal
To the citizens of Russia!
The Provisional Government has been deposed. State power has passed to the hands of the organ of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies-the Revolutionary Military Committee, which heads the Petrograd proletariat and the garrison.
The cause for which the people have fought, namely the immediate offer of a democratic peace, the abolition of landed proprietorship, workers’ control over production and the establishment of Soviet power-this cause has been secured.
Long live revolution of workers, soldiers and peasants!
THE SOVIET PEOPLE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO MAKE STAGGERING PROGRESS IN SUCH A SHORT HISTORICAL PERIOD OF TIME ONLY BECAUSE THEY TOOK THE ROAD OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM AND BEGAN BUILDING A NEW LIFE BY CARRYING OUT BASIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE ECONOMY.
The country inherited an extremely low economic and cultural level from tsarism.
Since then the face of Russia has changed beyond recognition. True, there are still unsolved problems and unsettled questions facing the Soviet people. But just over 50 years have passed. During this period a backward country, where three-quarters of the population were illiterate, has become a world power with a highly developed culture, science and technological standards.
The significance of what has been archived in the Soviet Union becomes all the greater when one considers that the Soviet people have had to endure years of ruin, hunger, war against home counter-revolutionaries supported by the imperialist powers (1918-1922), to put the economy on its feet unassisted and then bear the brunt of fascist invasion.
The effort being made in the USSR to increase industrial and agricultural production is to raise the living standards of the entire Soviet people.
The rents in the Soviet Union are the world’s lowest.
Medical services are free.
The public consumption fund is a sizable addition to working people’s incomes. This is the portion of the national income which the state earmarks for meeting the people’s needs, the development of public education, health protection, cultural facilities, improvement of living conditions, increased social insurance, etc.
Every citizen, regardless of his social and material status, enjoys these benefits. For example, parents with many children attending schools and universities know what the “invisible income” (free tuition at all levels) means to the family budget.
The State spends large sums of money on expanding the network of pre-schools establishments.
THE STATE BEARS 85 PER CENT OF THE COST OF CHILDREN’S MAINTENANCE AT KINDERGARTENS AND NURSERIES.
In all more than million children are maintained at pre-school establishments at the expense of the public consumption fund.
To ensure a happy childhood for every youngster, to rear a versatile and harmoniously developed man is one of the main goals of communist construction.
ALL IN THE NAME OF MAN, FOR THE BENEFIT OF MAN. FOR HAPPINESS ON EARTH
THE SOVIET PEOPLE WORK FOR THEMSELVES
Long-term plans are of especial significance in the development of the national economy and culture. Back in 1920 at the height of the Electrification of Russia (GOELRO) – was adopted on Lenin’s initiative. For the first time in world history an integrated plan for state economic development was devised and put into effect, marking the beginning of the scientifically-founded and diversified development of Soviet economy. That plan was not limited to electrification alone, it was also a concrete programme of restoration and further development of the national economy. The GOELRO plan emphasized the need for priority development of heavy industry. Calculated for 15 years, the GOELRO plan was fulfilled ahead of schedule.
When the first Soviet five-year plan was adopted in 1929, it was considered utopian in many countries. But it was fulfilled in a little over four years. Dozens of plants and factories, mines and power stations were commissioned.
By the beginning of the 40’s the Soviet Union had overtaken advanced European countries in the aggregate volume of industrial production and technical standards.
The perfidious attack of fascist Germany in 1941 halted the Soviet people’s peaceful construction. Germany in 1941 halted the Soviet people’s peaceful construction. Germany’s defeat in 1945 enabled many nations to embark on the path of freedom, independence and social progress.
The war caused tremendous damage. A third of the national wealth was destroyed. Tens of thousands of towns and villages, plants, mines,
State and collective farms lay in ruins on the vast expanses west of the Volga. It seemed it would take decades to restore the damage. However, the country reached the pre-war level industry by 1948 and in agriculture by 1950.
TODAY THE SOVIET UNION IS SECOND IN THE WORLD AND FIRST IN EUROPE IN THE AGGRGATE VOLUME OF INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT.
Machines of all kinds-from spaceships and walking excavators doing the work of 15 thousand workers, to instruments as sensitive as the human nervous system-are manufactured in the Soviet Union.
The rapidly advancing industry includes all spheres of modern production. The country has the biggest power stations, powerful
A NEW INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE IS COMMISSIONED EVERY DAY
Economical atomic power stations and record-size blast furnaces.
The radio industry, electronics, the atomic and chemical industries, particularly the production of plastics, synthetic resins, fibres and fertilisers are making speedy headway along with the power, steel and engineering industries.
There was a time when the Soviet people had to cut down on their personal needs to expedite the development of the consumer goods industries.
Of late important measures have been taken to enhance the scientific level of planning and improve the methods of economic management. Today the USSR, with only 7 per cent of the world’s population turns out nearly 20 per cent of the total industrial production. It now turns out as much industrial goods in one week as all of tsarist Russia turned out in a Year. One hundred and eighty tons of steel, 1 million kwh of electricity and 4 apartments a minute.
A new industrial enterprise is commissioned almost every day.
Labour is constantly being lightened
UNEMPLOYMENT IS OUT OF THE QUESTION
by the high technical standard of the Soviet industry and the steadily increasing mechanization and automation of production.
Siberia, a vast territory between the Urals and the Pacific, plays a special part in the development of the national economy. In the 18th century the great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov predicted: “Siberia will build up the might of Russia.” That prediction began to materialize when the Soviet people started to work on the economic development plans.
SIBERIA POSSESSES PRACTICALLY INEXHAUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES, MINERALS, TIMBER AND OTHER NUMEROUS RAW MATERIALS.
The Siberian rivers-the Yenisei, the Ob and the Lena-are the biggest in the world and comprise 80 per cent of the national hydro-power resources. Coal and iron-ore bearing rocks often come to the surface and oil gushes out in powerful fountains. During the last two years 8 large oil deposits have been discovered in the Tyumen region alone. New towns have sprung up where not so long ago bears used to roam: Aldan (gold production centre), Mirny (diamond production), Bratsk and Divnogorsk near the world’s biggest power stations on the Angara and Yenisei, and many others.
SIBERIA IS A NATURAL STOREHOUSE OF MINERAL WEALTH
In a not too distant future the Yenisei power grid will be supplemented by the Sayano-Shushenskoye power station with a capacity of 6.5 mln. kilowatts. Its dam, almost 750 feet high, is situated at the foothills of the Savany Mountains not far from the village of Shushenkoye where Lenin had been exiled by the tsarist government at the end of the last century.
THE WORLD’S BIGGEST POWER STATIONS ARE IN SIBERIA
One of the major achievements of Siberian development is Akademgorodok near Novosibirsk, a town with a population of one million.
Akademgorodok, with about 20 re-
SOCIALISM IS CHANGING THE FACE OF SIBERIA
search institutes, is the “brain trust” of Siberia.
THE SIBERIAN SCIENTISTS CONCENTRATE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEORETICAL RESEARCH, ON BRINGING SCIENCE CLOSER TO PRODUCTION AND ON MAKING SCIENCE A PRODUCTIVE FORCE OF SOCIETY.
The USSR is one huge construction site. Building cranes are inevitable part of the scenery: thousands of new plants and factories, hospitals, schools, cultural, communal and sports facilities are mushrooming all over the country.
Something like 10 million people move to new apartments every year.
Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Novosibirsk and other cities are a virtual experimental field of architects and building workers.
OVER ONE THOUSAND NEW CITIES HAVE BEEN BUILT
Monument to Peter the Great on the Neva embankment in Leningrad.
Ancient Bukhara, gem of Uzbek architecture.
Evening in Moscow.
Memorial centre in Ulyanowsky, birthplace of Lenin.
RENTS IN THE USSR ARE THE WORLD’S LOWEST
The difference between town and village is steadily diminishing. The construction of apartment houses, schools, kindergartens, clubs and other communal facilities is proceeding on an unprecedented scale in the village.
Lenin raised the question of the development of education and science a few months after the establishment of the Soviet Government.
Stringent economy was the rule at that time. Yet the funds the Soviet
“STUDY, STUDY AND STUDY”, WAS LENIN’S CALL
Government allocated for the development of science, culture and education were sufficient for many of an advanced capitalist country to envy. And if today the Soviet Union takes rightful pride in its achievements in science and culture, it is because the foundation for it was laid at a time when the construction of schools and libraries and the organization of workers’ faculties and scientific institutions was only just beginning.
Tuition of all kinds is free.
ALL CITIZENS IRRESPECTIVE OF SEX, RACE, NATIONALITY, RELIGIOUS CONVINCTIONS, SOCIAL AND PROPERTY STATUS HAVE THE RIGHT TO RECEIVE AN EDUCATION
Something like 76 million people study, in other words, a third of the population (children of pre-school age excluded).
There are approximately 800 institutions of higher learning and 9,000 specialized secondary schools, with an enrollment of over 8 million young men and women.
ALL TUITION IS FREE
A THIRD OF POPULATION STUDIES
Seventy-five per cent of the students at institutes and specialized secondary schools receive state stipends.
Moscow University is the biggest scientific and educational centre. Thirty-two thousand students are enrolled in its 14 faculties.
The working youth who study by correspondence enjoy additional paid leaves for the period of examinations and for the period of examinations and for writing the diploma theses.
THE SOVIET HIGHER AND SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS TURN OUT 1.2 MILLION SPECIALISTS A YEAR.
THE LAND BELONGS TO THE PEOPLE
Soviet agriculture is diversified and mechanized.
The land belongs to the socialist state, i.e. to the whole of society. It cannot be biught or sold. This was the agrarian question making it possible to set up large state farms-sovkhozes, and to turn over the land to the collective farms-kolkhozes-for their perpetual use. The artel form of land-tenure made it possible to settle the age-old “peasant-land” problem. The peasants united in cooperative farms (kolk-hozez) have seen for themselves the advantages of large-scale socialist farming based on the latest scientific and technological achievements.
The State purchases the produce of the collective farms at fixed prices. The collective farms use their revenue for paying the farmers, developing production, buying the machinery and building schools, hospitals, kindergartens, nurseries and clubs, rewarding the best workers, etc.
Aside from the public land that is tilled collectively, every farmer has a personal plot beside his house. The buildings on his plot are personal property which he can dispose of as he sees fit: sell it, will it to relatives, etc.
DIVERSE CONDITIONS PERMIT TO GROW A VARIETY OF CROPS: WHEAT, RICE, COTTON, BARLEY, TEA AND FLAX.
Animal husbandry is a major branch of agriculture supplying the population with foodstuffs and industry with raw materials.
Great attention is paid to the mechanization of agriculture. The Soviet Union is a leading producer of tractors and other farm machines.
The large-scale application of the latest scientific and technological achievements in agriculture, a higher level of scientific farming, planned irrigation and land improvement are a good basis for increasing harvests.
THE USSR IS THE BITHPLACE OF ASTRONAUTICS
On April 12, 1961 the Vostok spaceship piloted by Yuri Gagarin, citizen of the USSR, made the first space flight proving the possibility of manned interplanetary flights. That day has been declared International Aviation and Astronautics Day.
The series of space experiments being carried out by the Soviet scientists brings us closer to unravelling many mysteries of the Universe, and learning more about the origin and formation of the Earth.
OUTER SPACE EXPLORATION CONTINUES
Yury Gagarin, space pioneer, visiting young pioneers in Moscow.
Progress in Soviet astronautics is a constant source of new hypotheses in countless fields of knowledge – from cosmogony to meteorology.
Soviet scientists are working on a complex programme of research in astronomy. Astrophysics, the science that deals principally with the constitution of the celestial bodies, is developing especially rapidly.
The sputniks and automatic space stations have broadened man’s concept of space in the immediate vicinity of the Earth and interplanetary space, provided new data on the Moon and planets and provides the answer to some problems of communication, meteorology and navigation.
The geophysical sputniks of the Earth are collecting information on the weather over the expanses of the world ocean.
The Molnia-1 sputniks and the Orbita relay stations have made it possible for viewer in Central Asia, Siberia and the Far East to watch Central Television broadcasts, and have enabled Moscow and Paris to exchange colour television programmes.
Soviet scientists have won world recognition. Academicians Nicolai Semoynov, Igor Tamm, Lev Landau, Nikolai Basov, Alexandr Prokhorov and others are Nobel Prize winner.
Nuclear research is another sphere which has a profound impact on technological progress in various economic sectors.
Self-propelled atomic power stations have been built for operation in hard-to-reach areas in the North and the Arctic.
More than 800 thousand scientists are working at the USSR Academy of Sciences and its branches, at colleges, universities and various other institutions and organizations.
Moscow welcomes space heroes. Astronauts V. Shatalov, G. Shonin, V. Kubasov,A. Filipchenko, A. Volkov, V. Gorbatko and A. Yeliseyev after successful completion of the flight of spaceships “Soyuz-6”, “Soyuz-7” and “Soyuz-8”.
There is an Academy of Sciences in every Union Republic.
The Soviet Union has a quarter of the world’s scientists.
Soviet scientists and engineers have made considerable progress in the study of high-temperature plasma-a step towards solving the problem of controlling the thermonuclear reaction –in the development of quantum electronics and in developing polymeric and semi-condctor materials.
The discovery of the laser-the optical quantum generator-provided vast potentialities for the development of control and communication mechanism, medicine and super-fine processing of materials.
Soviet scientists cooperate with scientists in dozens of countries and participate in 110 international organizations to which the USSR Academy of Sciences is affiliated.
The collective effort at the Dubna Institute for Joint Nuclear Research and other scientific centres is a brilliant example of what scientists of different countries can achieve as they cooperate in tackling pressing scientific and technological problems.
ALL MEDICAL SERVICES ARE FREE
Concern for the health of the people is a major task of the Soviet State.
More than four million doctors and other medical specialists are employed in the public health system.
THE USSR HOLDS THE RECORD FOR THE NUMBER OF DOCTORS ON A POPULATION BASIS.
The basis of the Soviet system of health protection is its state character, the fact that medical services are free, hence available to all, that the medical science is closely tied in with practical health protection.
The State grudges no expense on carrying out large-scale health mea-
THE CHILDREN GET THE BEST
THE STATE PAYS FOR SOCIAL INSURANCE
Sures, preventing contamination of air, water and soil, improving the housing and living conditions of millions of people and extending the network of medical and children’s institutions.
Special medical stations function at plants and factories. The doctor there exercise systematic control over the sanitary conditions at the plants. They study working conditions and find out if there are persons in need of medical treatment and rest at sanatoriums and rest homes.
The dangerous infectious diseases-cholera, plague, small pox and typhoid-have been completely eliminated. Of late the incidence of malaria has dwindled to the point of disappearing. Poliomyelitis and diphtheria are on the way out, too.
In Soviet times life expectancy has more than doubled, the average life-span being 70 years. Child mortality rate has dropped considerably.
Large sums of money are spent on social welfare and social insurance.
The State bears all the expense for social insurance. A person is entitled to an allowance of up to 100 per cent of his salary (depending on seniority) in case of illness and disability. There are also special maternity allowances, old-age and invalid pensions. The state pays for treatment at sanatoriums and rest homes.
EVEN THE FIRST SOVIET GOVERNMENT DECREES PROCLAIMED THE WORKERS AND PEASANTS’ RIGHT TO STATE PENSIONS.
“To go on pension” means to begin living at state expense without contributing ahead of time.
Men have the right to go on pension at the age of 60 after working 25 years and women at the age of 55 after 20 years of work.
Those working in relatively hard conditions enjoy additional benefits: men go on pension at 50 after 20 years of work and women, at 45 having worked 15 years. A person who has worked half this time in trying conditions is also entitled to this benefit.
Personal pensions are granted for outstanding services to the Soviet State. Heroes of the Soviet Union and Heroes of Socialist Labour are among those entitled to receive personal pensions.
Pensions to all the working people is a typical feature of the Soviet way of life guaranteeing the people material security and confidence in the future.
FIVE THOUSAND SANATORIUMS 7.5 MILLION PEOPLE REST AT THE TRADE UNION EXPENSE ANNUALY
The right to rest in the USSR is ensured by guaranteeing the working people annual paid leaves and placing a large number of sanatoriums, rest homes, resorts, etc. at their disposal.
Million of people holiday at unforgettable beauty spots along the Crimean and Caucasian Black Sea coast, air is filled with the fragrance of pine-woods, at resorts in the Altai mountains, the Urals, the Middle-
Russia hills, and on the Pacific coast.
A decree on “Curative Areas of State Significance” signed by Lenin was issued in 1920. It stipulated that from then on all castles, palaces and parks would belong to the people to be turned into sanatoriums and rest homes. Every year some one and a half million people spend their holidays in Sochi, the famous Black Sea resort.
50 MILLION SPORTSMEN
The CPSU Programme emphasizes the importance of harmonious spirtual and physical development of the people. Numerous state and public organizations in the Soviet Union work to draw everyone into the physical culture training programmes.
What are known as “production exercises” have become very popular at plants, factories and institutions. This is a special physical-exercises programme performed before and during the work-day. These exercises take 5 to 7 minutes, reducing fatigue and increasing working ability.
The State pays particular heed to the physical education of young people. There are nearly 200 youth and over 1,000 children’s sports schools with an enrollment of more than 300,000. Besides that, there are thousands of sports groups and schools for people who are not going to become professional sportsmen but who enjoy sports and want to keep fit.
The mass character is the main distinction of Soviet sports.
30,000 STADIUMS FOR ALL
Every Soviet citizen has the right to use the sports facilities. The sports grounds, swimming pools, tennis courts and speedways are open to all. Anyone can use any sports equipment, from the hockey stick to the glider and from the football to the racing car (the annual dues for the use are purely nominal).
At present there are nearly 30,000 stadiums in the Soviet Union. 65,000 football fields, some 370,000 volleyball and basketball pitches, hundreds of swimming pools, boating and skiing stations, tourist centres and Alpine camps.
THE OVER 150 COLLEGES AND PHYSICAL CULTURE SECONDARY
SCHOOLS TRAIN MORE THAN 13 THOUSAND TEACHERS AND COACHES A YEAR
Countless prizes at international competitions have been won by Soviet chess-players, weight lifters, figure and speed skaters, pentathletes, footballers, basketballers, volleyball players, fencers, horsemen, track-and-field sportsmen, boxers, hockey-players, rowers and divers.
As in many other countries people in the villages do not go in as much for sports as townsfolk. However, rural sports associations such as the “Urozhai” (Harvest) in the Russian Federation and the “Pakhtakor” (Cotton Grower) in Uzbekistan have been
Life on earth would be incomplete without the world of the beautiful created by Nature and Man.
“A land of music, theatre and poetry,” the Soviet Union is often called, “a reading country”; “the world’s leading book producer.”
The country where three-quarters of the population were illiterate before the revolution, now turns out a quarter of the world’s book production.” Two hundred new titles a day are published in the USSR.
OVER ONE THOUSAND MILLION BOOKS ARE PUBLISHED ANNUALLY. THE BOOKS COME OUT IN 143 LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN THE SOVIET UNION AND ABROAD.
The Soviet Union also holds the world record for the number of libraries.
THERE ARE 368 THOUSAND FREE PUBLIC, SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND OTHER LIBRARIES WITH A STOCK OF OVER 2.3 THOUSAND MILLION BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. Soviet society is becoming apparent.
Each national culture is being enriched by the other national cultures.
Soviet art, based on the principle of socialist realism is multi-national. It is worthily represented by brilliant writers, musicians, artists and performers.
There are more than 500 theatres, including some 40 opera houses, 350 drama theatres and 130 odd children’s theatres. People in theatre include those who strictly adhere to old traditions and bold experimenters.
Plays are regularly broadcast direct from the theatres by 900 TV transmission and relay stations. Radio programmesare broadcast in all the languages spoken by Soviet peoples and in 53 foreign languages.
FOLK ART IS THE NATIONAL PRIDE
Cinema is the most popular art. Such remarkable Soviet films as October, Battleship Potyomkin, Mother, The Earth are highlights of world cinema.
The films Lenin in October, Living and Dead, Cranes are Flying, Father of a Soldier, Nobody Wants to Die, War and Peace and Anna Kareninahave been shown in many countries.
Traditional international film festivals are held in Moscow. Their motto is “For humanism of film art, for peace and friendship among nations!”
During the last few years Soviet musicians and singers have won prizes at all the important international contests.
Music lovers in the Soviet Union and abroad enjoy the traditional International Tchaikowsky Contest in Moscow which is invariably attended by musicians from all over the world, the festivals of modern music in Gorky, a big industrial city on the Volga, the international ballet contest in Moscow and the yearly “Moscow Stars” and “Russian Winter” festivals in Moscow and the “White Nights” festival in Leningrad.
600 THOUSAND AMATEUR ART GROUPS
Ye. Maximova and V. Vasilyev, soloist of the USSR Bolshoi Theatre, in Don Quixote, a ballet by Minkus.
THE USSR TURNS OUT A QUARTER OF THE WORLD BOOK PRODUCTION
The Bolshoi Theatre, the Leningrad Kirov Opera and Ballet Theatre, the State Symphony Orchestra, the Russian Republican Choir, the USSR State Ensemble of Folk Dance directed by Igor Moiseyev, the “Beryozka” Dance Ensemble, the Moscow State Circus and other top-notch companies always take part in the festivals.
Folk art crafts have become very popular in the Soviet Union and abroad. Palekh painting on wood and pâpiemaché, the Dymkovo toys, Georgian and Dagestan chased metalware, bone carving done in Kholmogory, Yakutia and Chukotka in the
OVER 500 THEATRES STAGE PLAYS IN ALL THE LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN THE USSR
north and Turkmen carpets are world famous.
There are special schools where the old masters, carrying on the traditions of their forefathers, teach their art to the younger generation, help develop have accumulated over the ages.
Soviet architects, too, seek to preserve the artistic heritage of olden times, the beauty and harmony of ancient monuments. In creating the architecture of our day they study the works of the great masters of the past.
The traditional idea of “museum quiet” can hardly be applied to
NEARLY 1,000 TV CENTRES AND RELAY STATIONS
Soviet museums, art galleries and exhibitions. The Leningrad Hermitage alone is visited by over two million art lovers annually, who flock to see the immortal paintings of the past and present.
Score of exhibitions of works by old and young artists, sculptors and amateur artists from many lands are held regularly.
Amateur art activities are developing in the USSR on an increasingly large scale.
MORE THAN 600 THOUSAND AMATEUR ART COMPANIES WITH OVER 11 MILLION MEMBERS ARE ACTIVE ALL OVER THE COUNTRY, IN CITIES AND VILLAGE ALIKE.
The companies include song and dance ensembles, orchestras, art studios and theatres.
The people’s quest for the beautiful leads to new forms of esthetic education. Apart from the thousands of music and art schools and institutes, there are also so-called people’s universities of culture tell thousands upon thousands about the best works of Russian and world classics.
IN THE NAME OF PEACE AND PROGRESS
Soviet foreign policy is a consistent policy of peace, security and friendship of the peoples. Its purpose is to create favourable conditions for the construction of a new society in the socialist countries, to consolidate the independence of the emergent nations and develop business-like cooperation among all peoples.
THE SOVIET UNION HAS ALWAYS BEEN AN ENEMY OF AGGRESSIVE WARS. IT HAS ALWAYS RENDERED SUPPORT TO COUNTRIES THAT ARE VICTIMS OF AGGRESSION.
Peaceful coexistence of countries with different social system is a basic principle of socialist foreign policy. This means that the countries should settle controversial issues by peaceful means and not by armed force. Consistent implementation of peaceful coexistence is conducive to the development of equal and mutually advantageous cooperation among all nations.
The Soviet people support the striving of the Middle East states for a stable peace in this area.
The Soviet Union proceeds from the premise that general and complete disarmament would be the most effective means of reducing the danger of another world war.
Ever since the nuclear weapon was devised the Soviet Government has emphasized that atomic energy should only be used for peaceful purposes and that an appropriate international agreement should be concluded to ensure it. It has consistently worked for this goal.
Along whit other countries the Soviet Union has proceeded with ratification of the Agreement on Nonproliferation of the Nuclear Weapon which has been
“THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRIENDLY GOOD-NEIGHBOURLY RELATIONS IS ADVANTAGEOUS TO BOTH THE SOVIET AND JAPANESE PEOPLES. WE ALSO BELIEVE THESE RELATIONS TO BE AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE CAUSE OF PRESERVING PEACE AND STABILIZING THE SITUATION IN THE FAR EAST AND IN ASIA IN GENERAL.”
The normalization of Soviet-Japanese relations in 1956 lifted the artificial barriers in the way of cultural and scientific contacts. The Bolshoi and MKHAT (Moscow Art) Theatres, the USSR Symphony Orchestra and the Leningrad Symphony Orchestra, the Leningrad and Novosibirsk opera and ballet troupes, the Moiseyev Folk Dance Ensemble and the Pyatnitsky Russian Folk Choir, the “Big Circus Show” and “Circus on Ice” have performed in Japan. Japanese audiences flock to hear violinists DavidOistrakh and Leonid Kogan, cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, pianist Grigori Sokolov, conductor Yevgeni Svetlanov and many outstanding Soviet musician.
Once more concerts are given in the Soviet Union by the famous “Kabuki”, the puppet theatres from the island of Avadzi and by the “Taroza” troupe, the “Odori” folk dance ensemble and the “Nippon kagekidan”. The “Singing Voices of Japan” is very popular. Amateur artistes of the Japanese trade unions perform in clubs and palaces of culture.
New forms of cultural cooperation are appearing. In cooperation with the well-known Soviet ballet-masters S. Messerer, A. Varlaamov and the Sminorvs a classical dance school named after Tchaikovsky opened in Tokyo. That was the beginning of the “Tokyo Ballet” troupe which staged the first national ballet “Marimo” to the music of Ishii Kan. In 1966 the ballet was enthusiastically received in Moscow, Leningrad and Kazan. Subsequent shows of the “Tokyo Ballet” were staged by ballet-master Kikleishvili of the Tblisi Opera House and conductor Paliashvili. In 1968 Maya Plisetskaya, the Soviet prima ballerina, danced with stars of the “Tokyo Ballet” at many concerts in Japan.
In 1967 the Gorky Film Studio in Moscow and the Japanese Daiei company made “The Little Runaway”, the first Soviet-Japanese production. The film was a success and Soviet and Japanese filn workers are planning new joint projects.
One of the results of Soviet-Japanese cultural exchange is the development of the art of “ikebana”-the ancient art of flower arranging-in the Soviet Union. This exquisite art is now often demonstrated at Soviet floriculturist exhibitions. There is a women’s “ikebana” club at the USSR-Japan Society. Professor SofuTeshigahara, the head of the “sogetsu” school, came to the Soviet Union in 1968 to demonstrate his skill. He conferred “sogetsu” honorary diplomas on members of the “ikebana” club.
National, artistic, trade, technical and scientific exhibitions do much to promote Soviet-Japanese exchange. In 1967 there was a big Leo Tostoy exhibition in Japan. The next year an exhibition to mark the centenary of the birth of Maxim Gorky was held in Tokyo, Hiroshima and Kumamoto.
Translations of Japanese authors have been published in the Soviet Union in editions totaling 6 million copies since the end of the last ten years. On the other hand translations of the complete works of Leo Tolstoi, Turgenev, Chekhov, Dostoyevsky and Gorky have evoked keen interest in Russian literature among Japanese intellectuals. Today one will hardly find a single important work of Soviet literature that has not been translated into Japanese.
In December 1967 three eminent translator of Russian and Soviet literature in Japan-Tatsuo Kuroda, Hakuyo Nakamura and Hishaitiro Hara-were awarded the order of the “Rising Sun,” second class, to Academician N. I. Konrad for his many year study and culture of Japan in the Soviet Union.
Of late steady contracts have been maintained between Soviet and Japanese scientists; bilateral scientific conferences and symposium have been held.
Societies for friendship and cultural relations have been set up in the two countries. Friendship agreements have been concluded between Nakhodka, Maizuru and Yokohama, all of whom have become sister-towns.
It is no exaggeration to state that there is a genuine upsurge in Soviet-Japanese economic, scientific and cultural relations. Cultural, artistic and scientific exchanges have become part of cultural life in the USSR and Japan promoting mutual understanding and good-neighbourly relations.
* * *
COMPLETE EQUALITY, RESPECT FOR OTHER PEOPLE’S NATIONAL CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS HAS BEEN AND REMAINS OF THE UNSHAKABLE FOUNDATION OF THE SOVIET UNION’S RELATIONS IN THE SPHERES OF SCIENCE AND CULTURE WITH ANY COUNTR BIG OR SMALL.
VISITOR'S GUIDE TO JAPAN WORLD EXPOSITION 1970
THE CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, N.A.
VISITORS' GUIDE BOOK
JAPAN WORLD EXPOSITION 1970
THE CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, N.A.
WELCOMES YOU TO JAPAN
WE WISH TO DO OUR PART IN MAKING
EXPO '70 A GREAT SUCCESS AND WE WILL
BE MORE THAN HAPPY TO GIVE YOU ALL
THE ASSISTANCE WE CAN DURING YOUR
THIS GUIDE BOOK, COMPILED FOR YOUR
CONVENIENCE, IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE THAT
YOU HAVE A FRIEND
AT CHASE MANHATTAN
THE CHASE MANHATTAN BANK N. A.
EXPO '70 VISITORS' GUIDE BOOK
Location of Chase Manhattan Bank, N. A., Japan Branches.................................................1
Location of Chase Manhattan Bank, N. A.,
South East Asia Area Branches..........................................................................1
Welcome to Japan.........................................................................................................2
Facts and Figures on Osaka Region.................................................................................3
Explanation EXPO '70 Symbol ........................................................................................6
General Information on EXPO '70 ..................................................................................7
Cultural Events Scheduled during EXPO '70 ....................................................................9
Helpful Hints and Tips while travelling in Japan.
Money Exchange ..................................................................................................13
Customs Regulations, Visas, Tipping .......................................................................14
Weather, Guides, Banks, Emergency Calls ..............................................................15
Dining and Wining .................................................................................................17
Getting around by Train, Airline, Taxi, Hire Car ........................................................18
Sightseeing and Entertainment in Japan ........................................................................19
Map of Tokyo .......................................................................................................20
Tokyo Sightseeing .................................................................................................21
Tokyo Entertainment ..............................................................................................22
Sightseeing outside Tokyo ......................................................................................23
Map of Kyoto .........................................................................................................25
General Information on Kyoto .................................................................................26
Kyoto Sightseeing ..................................................................................................27
Kyoto Entertainment ..............................................................................................28
Map of Osaka ........................................................................................................29
Osaka Sightseeing .................................................................................................30
Map of Nara ..........................................................................................................31
General Information on Nara ..................................................................................32
Famous Temples in Nara ........................................................................................33
Hotel Information .........................................................................................................35
FOR ALL YOUR BANKING NEEDS IN
OFFICES OF THE CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, N. A. IN TOKYO AND
CHIYODA-KU, TOKYIO TEL. (03) – 281-3931/9
(FOR LOCATION, PLEASE REFER TO MAP ON PAGE 20)
(FOR LOCATION, PLEASE REFER TO MAP ON PAGE 20)
WHEN YOU VISIT NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES, THE FRIENDLY OFFICES
OF THE CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, N.A. ARE AT YOUR SERVICE IN
THE FOLLOWING PLACES.
TEL. 24 – 2471/5
KUALA LUMPUR: 9 JALAN GERJA, KUALA LUMPUR,
DJAKARTA: 6 DJALAN MEDAN MERDEKA BARAT,
KOTA: 11-13 DJALAN ROA MALAKA
SAIGON: 28-30 RUE NGUYEN-VAN-THINH,
WELCOME TO JAPAN
WHERE OLD AND NEW GO ALONG WITH EACH OTHER IN PERFECT ARMONY
In the vicinity of Osaka are cities of Kyoto and Nara, the treasuries of Japan’s ancient culture, and Kobe, Japan’s major foreign trade port, comprising the Grater Metropolis of Osaka.
Until about 100 years ago,
FACTS AND FIGURES ON
Osaka Prefecture has an area of 715 square miles, only 0,5% of the nation’s total area of 143,000 square miles.
In the classification of merchandise, textiles accounted for the biggest portion (36.9%) of exports. Machinery followed with 30.4% and metal products with 12.3%. Chemical products marked 6.5%, with foodstuffs and drinks 1.8% and other merchandise 10%.
Of the export item handled by
Last year’s total imports handled by
Nearly 33% of all import handled by
The main characteristics of
has been Known as the “Tenka no Daidokoro” (Center oj Japanese Commerce) and it still lives up to the name, especially in wholesale dealings. Osaka Osakais one of ’s foreign trade centers, and plays an important role as a door to foreign countries. Foreign firms and export industries are vital cogs in Japan ’s economy. Osaka is a leader in industrial activities. Light industry, turning out such products are textiles and electrical home appliances, has a strong foundation here. Osaka
THE SYMBOL OF THE
The Japan World Exposition, which will be held for six months in the Senri Hills in Osaka Prefecture beginning on March 15, 1970, will be the first of its kind ever held in Asia.
The site of the Exposition covers nearly 3.5 million square meters, and is about
CULTURAL EVENTS SCHEDULED FOR EXPO ‘70
Osaka Festival Hall
Opening Concert (March 15). The NHK Symphony Orchestra conducted by Hiroyouki Iwaki. Program includes Dvorzak’s Simphony No. 9 and Mayuzumi’s Bugaku.
Ed Sullivan Show (International) (March 15-22). Talented guest performers will be invited from the States, Europe, and
Broadcasting Festival EXPO ’70 (
Here Comes EXPO ’70 (Program A) (March 15-22). About Japanese drum beaters will celebrate the opening of the EXPO by beating various kinds of drums.
Parade of Policemen of the World (March 15-22). About 300 policemen of 70 countries will take part in the parade.
Here Comes EXPO ’70 (Program B) (March 24-30). The Chicago Fire Brigade comprising 150 firemen and about 1,300 Japanese entertainers will highlight the program.
EXPO Mates Show (March 15-24).
Osaka Festival Hall
The Swiss Evening (April 24 and 25). By the Yomiuri Nippon Symphony Orchestra conducted by Charles Duttoi with Lisa de la Caza, soprano, as vocal soloist and Aurelie Nicole as flute soloist.
The Niki Kai Opera Troupe (April 27 and 29). The opera organized by the graduates of the Tokyo University of Arts will present Wagner’s Das Rheingold.
Let’s Sing Together: A Festival of Youths (
Canzone Festival (
Pop Stars from
Popular Song Hit Parade (
World Flower Festival (Program A) (April 2-6)
World Flower Festival (Program B) (April 8-12)
You and I (April 14-19) Belgian Folk Dances.
Grand Ballet (Progress and Harmony) (April 21-23)
Space Cartoon Festival (April 25-26)
Japan-U.S. Light Music Meet (March 28-April 5). A
Italian Gondola Show (April11-15). Italian singer sing Canzone on gondolas of
Osaka Festival Hall
National Popular Song Festival (
European Carnival (European countries) (May 9-15). A show of pop music from
Children Festival (April 28-May 5). Celebrating Children’s Day of Japan on May 5, about 1,280 children will present songs and dances.
Waltzing Matilda Parade (May 7-11). An Australian parade will be presented
with the popular Australian song Waltzing Matilda as theme song.
Miss International World Contest (May 15-16). Girls selected from 50 countries will compete in the contest to be held for the first time in
Korean Festival (May 18-20). Korean folk dances and songs.
Fantasy in Sound and Light (May 21-26).
Music Ride Show (May 27-31). Thirty-six Canadian policemen on horseback will present various kinds of horse show.
Osaka Festival Hall
The Yomiuri Nippon Symphony Orchestra (June 4). Conducted by Hiroshi Wakasugi.
The Paillard Chamber Orchestra (June 6-7). Conducted by Jean-François Paillard.
The Rome Ensemble, also known as Virtuosi di Roma, (June 22). Conducted by R. Fasano.
The NHK Symphony Orchestra (June 24). Conducted by Hiroyuki Iwaki withYoshio Unno as violin soloist. Program includes Tscaikovsky’s Symphony No. 5 and Khachaturian’s Violin Concerto.
The Japanese Opera Yuzuru by Ikuma Dan (June 29-30). The cast includes Kyoto Ito, alto, and Yoshinobu Kuribayashi, bass.
Musical Anne of Green Gables (
Frank Sinatra Show (
Markets of the World (June 2-7).
Miss Universe Parade (June 19-20).
Dancing Fan ’70 (June 22-27). Traditional Japanese dances.
Osaka Festival Hall
Chanson Festival (
Swingle Singers de France Concert (
Cuban Folk Dance Festival (Latin American countries) (July 18-23).
Tea Room Variety Show (
Japanese Festival (Program A1) (July 1-3).
Japanese Festival (Program A2) (July 5-7).
Bird in Sun (July 8-9). A folk festival of New Zeland will be presented.
Bugei Festival (July 13-15). Traditional Japanese warrior plays will be featured.
Youth Festival (July 21-23).
Japanese Festival (Program B1) (July 24-26).
Japanese Festival (Program B2) (July 28-30).
Invictones Music Band of
Baton Twirling Contest of the World (July 9-18)
Water Carnival (July 25-Aug. 24)
Osaka Festival Hall
The New Philharmonic Orchestra (August 6-9, August 11). Conducted by Sir John Barbirolli and Edward Downs with Jeanette Baker, alto, as vocal soloist and John Odgon as piano soloist. Program includes Mahler’s Lieder und Gesange aus der Jugendzeit (Songs of Wandering Youths).
The Bolshoi Opera of Moscow (August 17-22). Program includes Boris Godnov.
The New York Philharmonic Orchestra (August 29-September 1). Conducte by Leonard Bernstein and Seiji Ozawa. Program includes Mahler’s Symphony No. 9 and Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique.
Centennial History of Japanese Popular Songs (August 6).
EXPO Youth Festival (International) (August 8-31).
Czechoslovakian Folk Dance Festival (August 1-6). A representative of a Czech folk dance troupe will present colorful dances.
Japanese Festival (Program C1) (August 8-10).
Japanese Festival (Program C2) (August 20-22).
Elephant Festival (August 13-20)- About 20 elephants of Thailand and 50 Thai dancers will parade.
Asian Festival (August 12-18). Dancing troupes of Cambodia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand and Nationalist China will present traditional folk dances.
Namban Festival (August 24-29). A Portuguese folk dance troupe will present colorful dances.
Osaka Festival Hall
Piano Recital by Sviatoslav Richter (September 3 and 5).
The English Chamber Orchestra (September 7-8). Conducted by Raymond Lepard with Robert Tier, tenor, as vocal soloist.
Closing Concert (September 12). The NHK Symphony Orchestra conducted by Takashi Asashina. Program includes Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9.
Japanese Traditional Dances on Parade (September 3-9).
Farewell EXPO ’70 (Japan) (September 12).
Gutai: Fine Art Festival (August 31-September 2).
Good-Bye EXPO ’70 (September 7-12).
Note: Osaka Festival Hall is located in the center of Osaka City.
EXPO Hall, Festival Plaza and Water-Front Stage are located at the exposition site.
HELPFUL HINTS AND TIPS WHILE TRAVELLING IN
Generally, the first problem to confront the newly arrived visitor to
Be sure to save your currency conversion certificates as you may be called upon to produce them when you prepare to leave
Money Conversion Table
(US$1 = ¥360)*
¥ (Yen) $ (
100 .28 1,900 5.28
200 .56 2,000 5.56
300 .84 2,500 6.95
400 1.12 3,000 8.34
500 1.39 3,500 9.73
600 1.67 4,000 11.12
700 1.95 4,500 12.50
800 2.23 5,000 13.89
900 2.50 5,500 15.28
1,000 2.78 6,000 16.67
1,100 3.06 7,000 19.45
1,200 3.34 8,000 22.23
1,300 3.62 9,000 25.00
1,400 3.90 10,000 27.78
1,500 4.17 20,000 55.56
1,600 4.45 30,000 83.34
1,700 4.73 36,000 100.00
1,800 5.00 50,000 138.89
* (Subject to slight exchange fluctuations)
Visitors’ baggage is subject to customs inspection both on entering and leaving
Multiple visas valid for four years are given to Americans to whom the mutual agreement between the
A tip may be accepted, is certainly appreciated but is not expected for almost all types of service rendered in the country. You would not displease or offend those serving you by neglecting the practice. On trains, too, the old practice of tipping service boys has been abandoned in favor of a new pay system by the railroads.
In certain barber shops tips are accepted but they are pooled for fair distribution among all employees, thereby negating our personal expression of appreciation.
The practice of tipping in
Spring Mar. 44.0 Autumn Sept. 71.8
Apr. 54.7 Oct. 61.2
May 62.6 Nov. 51.3
Summer June 69.1 Winter Dec. 41.7
July 75.9 Jan. 37.4
Aug. 78.4 Feb. 38.7
Seasonal clothing is a must and your wardrobe can be planned to conform to what you normally wear in such cities as
If you want the services of licensed guides speaking English, French, German, Spanish, etc., they may be secured trough travel agencies or hotels.
Guides fees, not including transportation, lodgings and meals, are as follows:
From ¥ 1,700 to ¥ 2,000 for half a day and ¥ 2,300 to ¥ 2,800 for one day for conducting up to three tourists and ¥ 100 for each additional tourist.
Further information is given by the Japan Guide Association, c/o Japan Travel Bureau,
Banks are open to
For ambulance service ore reporting a fire, call 119. For police dial 110.
Whit tax-exempt privileges, the visitor can enjoy some exceptional bargains in
Such authorized stores are furnished with forms of “Record of Purchase of Commodities Tax Exempt for Export”, which are filled and attached to your passport. At the same time you are required to sign a “Covenant of Purchase of Commodities Tax-Exempt of Ultimate Export” to certify that articles of your purchases are for ultimate export and will not be disposed of in the country. It is important to have such purchase records attached to your passport, as they are subject to inspection at the port of exit. When you have purchased articles to be sent home separately, you should not fail to obtain a certificate of shipment from the store.
Articles subject to tax exemption are the following:
Pearls and articles in which pearls are used.
Objects of precious metals.
Articles of tortoise shell, coral and ivory.
Furs and products.
Cameras, parts and accessories.
Binoculars, monoculars, and cases.
Articles for interior decoration.
Articles gilded or plated with precious metals.
Cigarette lighters and other articles for smoking.
(limited to lacquered and metal items)
Dolls and cases.
Accessories of lacquered and metal work.
DINING AND WINING
Aside from the thousand of restaurants that serve only Japanese foods, there are many fine restaurants that serve representative foods from almost every country in the world.
Among the more popular Japanese dishes with foreign visitors are:
Kabayaki – Filets of eel, charcoal broiled and basted with a special sauce, are sweet and meltingly tender.
Okaribayaki – A delicious and most unusual Genghiskhan-like barbeque (but of typically Japanese origin) of tender and succulent beef, chicken and fresh vegetables cooked right before your eyes.
Sushi – Primarily slices of raw fish served on vinegared rice with a dab of hot mustard; it is astonishingly good as a late hour snack.
Tempura – Deep fried shrimp, fish and choice vegetables served with an extremely delicious sauce dip.
Vegetables – All vegetables served in hotels and restaurants are grown with chemical fertilizers and can be eaten with confidence.
Water – All water in Japanese cities and resorts is purified by the most modern methods and is perfectly safe to drink from the tap.
Wine, whisky and beer – All of the leading imported and domestic brands are available at first class hotels, bars and night clubs. Japanese beer is world famous, Sake – the rice wine – is well worth a try and certain Japanese whiskies rank with the world’s finest.
Yakitori – Bits of chicken and vegetables skewered, basted and charcoal broiled make a most delicious snack.
Japan is blessed with one of the most modern and efficient transportation systems in the world and the visitor will generally fins getting around in the cities or moving from one city to another both pleasant and economical.
Reservations should be made when travelling log distances to ensure a seat and, of course, are a must for sleepers. Japan National Railways operates all long distance trains – including the three-hour super express between
Domestic air service is frequent, fast and quite reasonable. Japan Air Lines, Japan Domestic Airlines, All Nippon Airways and several smaller companies operate between all major cities with the latest and most modern equipment.
Japan National Railways operates ferry steamers that connect with their train services at various coastal terminals. There are also several private steamship lines operating on regular schedules with the most popular routes being in the Inland Sea between
Taxis are plentiful and the rate is never more than 120 yen (US$0.33) for the first two kilometers (a little over a mile) and goes up in units of 20 yen (US$0.06) for each succeeding one fifth of a mile. All taxis have meters and the passenger should pay only what is registered on the meter. Incidentally, any cab that refuse to accept you as a fare can and should be reported to the police.
Chauffer driven can be hired at all major hotels. The prices vary with the type of car but are not inexpensive. Your hotel can give you complete information on this. “U-drive-its” are also available.
SIGHTSEEING IN JAPAN
This is best accomplished through professional tour operators. Your hotel has full tour information and illustrated brochures with rates and schedules. In Tokyo, daily 7½-hr. city tours which include sightseeing, barbecue lunch and a musical review are available for ¥3,600 (US$10). 3½-hr. morning and evening city tour cost ¥ 1,200 (€3,33). Night tours include visits to a Geisha House, art tours, and industrial tours. Kyoto offers even more varied tours at comparable prices. Travel Bureau operate Japan-wide tours lasting from 5 to 14 days. The prices are: 5-day tour about ¥40,000 (about US$110); 14-day tour - ¥100,000 (about US$280). Meals, transportation and lodging are included.
ENTERTAINMENT IN JAPAN
You need never lack for entertainment in Japan. Major Japanese cities have more than their share of movie house, theaters, museums, restaurants, night clubs, and bars. Closing time for evening entertainment is early thought Japan, usually before midnight. Coffee shops are a Japanese intuition. Here you can sip coffee, enjoy recorded or live music, converse, and observe modern Japan at leisure. Department stores are many and feature cultural exhibits of interest to tourist. Local English language newspapers carry complete schedules. The theater is well represented in the major cities. Foreign orchestras, jazz groups and entertainers share the theater scene with traditional Kabuki, Noh, Bunraku and stage arts. All-girls revues are very colorful and worth seeing. Sports never take a holiday in Japan. Sumo wrestling and baseball take the spotlight. Many sporting events are televised. Consult your hotel for convenient schedules.
The Imperial Palace, surrounded by moats and high stone walls, stands in quit serenity amid Tokyo’s hustle and bustle. It is the residence of the Imperial family and formerly the castle of the Tokugawa shoguns. Open free to the public on January 2 and April 29, the Emperor’s birthday. Hibiya Park is the oldest public park in Japan, located alongside the Imperial Palace. The Diet Building houses the Japanese parliament in an imposing structure. Consult your hotel about admission to the visitors’gallery. Meiji Shrine, where the Emperor Mejii is enshrined, features more than 10,000 trees blended perfectly with iris gardens, huge Torii gates and white gravel walks. The outer Gardens house many of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics facilities such as the 100,000-seat National Stadium. Korakuen, formerly the grounds of a feudal lord, is now a beautiful Japanese-style garden open the public. Nearby are a pro-ball park and lively amusement center. Ginza is a world-famous shopping street. Located in Ueno Park are many famous museums, a Zoo, the Toshogu Shrine and Tokyo Metropolitan Theater. Asakusa District is a favorite sight-seeing spot, for the area retains its traditional Japanese character even today. Amusement centers, shops, restaurants and the famed Asakusa Kannon Temple are all found here. Kabuki-za (theater), where the classic Kabuki drama is performed, is a traditional-style building and a Tokyo landmark. Tokyo Tower, built in 1958, is the world’s highest TV tower and is constructed especially to withstand earthquakes and typhoons. All of Tokyo can be viewed from its observation platform.
Tokyo eating places, night clubs, bars and coffee shops number into the tens of thousands. Here is a brief sampling of what the world’s largest city offers. In evening entertainment: Night clubs featuring floor shows and English speaking hostesses. Restaurants: Japanese-style for Sukiyaki; Okahan, Suehiro, Yugiri. For Tempura; Inagiku, Ten-ichi. For Sushi; Kiraku, Edogin. For country cooking: Furusato. Garden restaurants; Chinzan-so, Happo-en. Chinese dishes; China House, Sun-ya. For Peking dishes; Akasaka Hanten, Peking. All styles; Liu Yuan. Korean-style; Korea House, Taisho-en, Indian-style; Nair’s. Indonesian-style; Indonesian Raya. French-style; France-ya, Crescent. Italian-style; Antonio’s, Nicola’s. German-style; Katel’s, Lohmeyer’s. For steaks; Kobe Steak, Alaska Misono, San Kyu, Frank’s. Beer halls throughout the city offer simple meals and snacks. Hotel dining is excellent in Tokyo.
SIGHTSEEING OUTSIDE TOKYO
Kamakura is an easy 40-minute train ride from Tokyo. It was once a feudal capital of Japan and is a famous for its Great Buddha, Hachiman Shrine and beaches.
Hakone and Mt. Fuji can be reached from Tokyo in less than 2 hours by train and short taxi ride to nearby hotels. In the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park area there are many points of interest including Miyanoshita spa at Hakone, Fuji Five Lakes, which surround Mt. Fuji and mirror its beauty. Mt. Fuji, a perfect volcanic cone, whit an altitude of 12,397 feet, is the highest and most famous peak in Japan. It may be climbed by pilgrims and sportsmen in July and August.
Atami and Izu Peninsula are located south of the Hakone District and face the Pacific Ocean. The area is warmed in winter and cooled in summer by the Japan Current and the sea breezes. Hot springs abound all over the peninsula and its beautiful scenery makes it a favorite spot for honeymooners. Atami, in fact, is Japan’s honeymoon capital and one of its most famous spas. It is a 1½-hour train ride from Tokyo or an hour’s car ride from Hakone. Over 600 hotels and inns are located here. Rates range from ¥1,500-3,000¥ for single room with bath, ¥2,000-¥4,500 for double room with bath.
Nikko’s charm lies in the perfect harmony of its natural and mam-made beauty. Spreading over of 210,000 acres in four prefectures, Nikko’s woods, water-falls, lakes and mountains afford the perfect setting for ornately carved shrines, some dating back to 1617. At that time, a mausoleum was built and the remains of the founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Ieyasu, were transferred there.
Nikko then began to prosper, attracting people from all over Japan. Now 3 million tourists come here to admire Toshogu Shrine and relax at the hot spring hotels. Nikko is reached from Tokyo in less than two hours by train. Fare is about ¥770 ($2.15) for fist class accommodations. At Nikko, taxis and hire cars are available through hotels. Full-day trips to all points of interest by hire car cost about ¥5,000 (about $14.40). Nikko has many Japanese inns and three Western hotels. Room rates are ¥2,000-¥3,600 for single room with bath; ¥2,500-¥4,000 for double room with bath. Point of interest include Cryptomeria Avenue, the 23-mile approach to Toshogu Shrine, lined with mammoth Cryptomeria trees, some 300 years old and over 100 feet high; Sacred Bridge at the entrance to Toshogu Shrine, a red lacquered and gold, affording a breathtaking sight and considered the most beautiful and elaborate gate in Japan; Lake Chuzenji, formed by Volcanic eruption, filled with trout and surrounded by many cherry trees; Kegon Waterfall, crated by water over-flowing from Lake Chuzenji, 330 feet high and 33 feet wide, with an observation deck at the bottom of the falls which can be reached by elevator.
Kyoto, capital or chief citadel of Japan’s civilization for over thousand years, lies situated on a gently inclined plain of modest size, surrounded on three sides by low chains of forested mountains, a locale conspicuous for its natural beauty. Over the centuries, this great city has played a role of singular importance in Japan’s history, continually influencing, and frequently dominating the course of her cultural progress. It has served as a traditional stronghold of scholarship and religious endeavor, as well as a congenial patron of the varied art forms which constitute such an impressive part of the national heritage.
Much of Kyoto’s art is religious in inspiration and its countless temples and shrines constitute a living museum to the Buddisth faith. The visitors can spend many delightful hours, if not days, in the ancient, narrow streets in Kyoto. These streets were mercifully spared in the World War II bombing so that they stand today as they have stood for centuries past.
Kyoto has many festivals, all of which, in one way or another, are designed to make the glorious heritage of the past a very real and vivid part of Kyoto’s living history of today. For elegance, color and sheer exuberance, Kyoto’s festivals are unequalled anywhere in the world!
Japan’s cultural capital can be easily toured by buses which pick you up at the major hotels. 3½ morning or afternoon tours cost about ¥1,000; night tour with dinner, about ¥3,000. Your hotel’s information desk has all details on a variety of tours and the unique “Home visit” Kyoto program. Points of special interest are: Nijo Castle, built in 1603 by the first shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, with beautiful gardens and lavish interiors, furnishing dazzling sights for visitors; the Old Imperial Palace, a replica of original 8th century Empereor’s Palace. Noted for its architectural simplicity, dignity and grace; Higashi Honganji Temple, a headquarters for Japan’s largest Buddhist sect, one of the largest and most magnificent temples in Japan; Heian Shrine, Kyoto’s most colorful shrine with bright red pillars, white walls and green tiled roof, dedicated to the Emperor Kammu who selected Kyoto as his capital; Kinkakuji or Golden Pavilion, 3-tiered and gold-gilded situated by a peaceful pond which reflects its great beauty; Kiyomizu Temple, jutting out of a mountainside, one of Kyoto’s oldest temples from the early 17th century and dedicated to Kannon, Goddess of Mercy; Gion District, where Geisha and Maiko entertainers live and better known restaurants are located. In Kyoto suburbs, the Katsura Imperial Villa, built in the early 17th century is located. It is a masterpiece of simplicity and natural beauty, surrounded by classics gardens. (To visit, you must make advance application.) Other interesting temples are: Saihoji Temple or Moss Temple with a velvet carpeted moss garden and Ryoanji Temple, a Zen Temple famous for its raked sand garden.
Japanese Arts: Located at the Gion Corner is a theater which introduces traditional Japanese art to foreigners. One can enjoy classical dances performed by Maiko, flower arrangement, tea ceremony and recitals whit Japanese instruments held nightly from 8:00-9:30 p.m. Charge: ¥5,000 (US$13.90) for 1-hour entertainment and dinner. Tea ceremony and flower arrangement at Saihoji Temple is conducted for tourists every afternoon except Wednesdays and Sundays. Reservations may be made through your hotel or travel agent. Restaurants: The following famous Kyoto restaurants require advance reservations: Doi, Gion Nakamura-Ro, Ise-cho, Minoko, Ashiya Gallery, Junidan-ya. For Sukiyaky and other beef specialities: Mishimatei. For Tempura: Tenki, Karafune, Kibun. For Mizutaki (Pot-boiled chicken): Sato Kashiwa Ryo, Shin Miura.
Regular sightseeing buses provide a wide selection of tours in this important city, second largest in Japan and the country’s industrial capital. Consult your hotel information desk or any tourist agency for details. Points of interest are: Osaka Castle, first built in the 16th century by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and since rebuilt and restored, the largest castle in Japan; Dotombori and Sennichimae, popular amusement centers whose movie houses, cabarets, and restaurants becken entertainment seekers; Shinsaibashi Suji, a street lined with quality shops selling beaded bags and silk goods; Tsutenkaku, a 340-foot steel tower with observation platform, commands a magnificent view of the city.
Bunraku Puppet Swohs werw begun in the late 17th century in Osaka. Bunraku dolls are about two-thirds life-size and are manipulated by a master operator and two assistants. The dolls enact classic plays accompanied by a chanter and traditional instruments. Bunraku-za (theater) hold performances about five times a year. Hotels and tourist agencies have full details. Kabuki is held at Shin Kabukiza and Nazaka, year-round. Admission is about ¥2,500 ($7) per person. Night clubs are as numerous and spectacular as those in Tokyo. Restaurants: Dining in Osaka is considered the best in Japan. Fresh seafood from the Inland Sea and beef from the vicinity are world famous. Beside regular Japanese and Western fare, try Kaiseki dishes served before the tea ceremony. It is best to make reservations as the famous Osaka restaurants. For Japanese food in general, visit Taikonen, Tsuruya, Rogetsu, Nadaman, or Kikuya; for Sukiyaki: Asahi, Suehiro, or Mimiu; for Kaiseki dishes: Sakaguchi-ro, Karasaki-ryo.
The area around Nara City, which can be reached in about half an hour from Osaka by private railway line, or in about one hour by car, is called “The Cradle of Japanese Culture” because of the preservation of various kinds of cultural treasures of the 7th and 8th centuries.
The first capital of Japan was built in Nara City between 718 and 784 A.D. It was the first permanent capital.
The Emperor Genmyo selected Nara as the site of the Imperial Throne some 1,250 years ago. The Heijo Palace surroundend with walls totaling about 20 kilometers in length was completed at the western part of the present Nara City. Seven Emperors lived in the palace for a little over 70 years until the capital was moved to Kyoto.
Because the Imperial ancestors lived in the Nara region, there are many temples and shrines scattered in and around Nara. They are all treasure houses of Japanese culture.
The Horyuji Temple, the oldest Buddhist mecca existing in Japan, is said to be oldest wooden structure in the world. At the Horyuji museum located within the temple, one can see Buddhist sculptures, murals, and ornaments used religious rites dating back to the 7th century.
Nara’s deer roam freely in a vast and protected park and are blessed with an almost insatiable appetite.
(The following pages include more detailed information on the various temples worth visiting.)
FAMOUS TEMPLES IN NARA
Built by the Emperor Shomu who is credited with establishing the Japanese monarchial system on a solid foundation Work started in 745 and was completed seven years later. The Great Buddha (Daibutsu) was cast in bronze in 752. It weighs 452 tons and measures 53.5 feet in height in its sitting posture. It is on a pedestal 68 feet in circumference, which is decorated with 56 lotus flower petals. The statues of two Deva Kings guarding the South Gate (Nandai-mon) of the temple are works of Unkei and Kaikei, noted sculptors of the time.
The family shrine of the Fujiwaras, whose members occupied top administrative posts for many centuries. Stone lanterns stand alongside the approach to the shrine from the Torii sacred arch, and bronze lanterns hang from the eaves of the corridor encircling the inner sanctuary.
Saidaiji means “the great temple of the west” and it is comparable in importance with Todaiji (the great temple of the east). The two were among the seven major temples of the Heijo capital. Saidaiji has been devasted many times since its completion in 765. However, many invaluable cultural and religious treasures have been preserved.
Originally built in 780, the temple burned down in 1135. The existing main hall was constructed during the Kamadura period.
Most of the important halls of this temple, including the main and lecture halls (Kondo and Kodo), have remained intact since their completion in the Heijo period. Toshodaiji was founded by the Priest Ganshin, who had come to Japan from mainland China.
Situated next to the Toshodaiji Temple. On entering the compound of this temple, your attention will be caught by three-story pagoda, a representative structure of the early Heijo period. It is called “frozen music” because of the “rhythms” in its design. Another tower matching it was lost to fire. The statue of Buddha and two Kannon in the main hall are masterpieces of Japanese religious art. The Kannon are named “Moonlight” and “Sunlight”.
The Buildings of this temple are the world’s oldest existing wooden structures. The pillars of the Nandaimon (south gate) and corridors are slightly curved, larger in the middle and smaller at both end. Prince Shotoku, who patronized Buddhism and helped it gain acceptance throughout Japan, is said to be the founder. The temple was built in 607.
WESTERN HOTELS IN TOKYO Tel.
Akasaka Prince Hotel (03) – 262 - 5151
Hotel New Japan “ 581 - 5511
New Otani Hotel “ 265 – 1111
Imperial Hotel “ 591 - 3141
Marunouchi Hotel “ 231 – 0271
Okura Hotel “ 582 – 0111
Palace Hotel “ 211 – 5211
Tokyo Hilton Hotel “ 581 – 4511
Tokyo Prince Hotel “ 434 – 4221
WESTERN HOTELS IN OSAKA
Hotel New Hanku (06) - 372 – 5101
Hotel New Osaka “ 441 – 1431
Hotel Osaka Grand “ 202 – 1212
Hotel Plaza “ 453 - 1111
International Hotel Osaka “ 941 - 2661
Osaka Royal Hotel “ 448 - 1112
Tokyo Hotel “ 372 - 8181
WESTERN HOTELS IN KYOTO
Hotel Kyoto Grand (075) - 341 – 2311
International Hotel Kyoto “ 231 – 9171
Kyoto Hotel “ 211 – 5111
Kyoto Station Hotel “ 361 – 7151
Kyoto Tower Hotel “ 361 – 3211
Kyoto Orazaki Hotel “ 761 – 3131
Kyoto Palace-Side Hotel “ 431 – 8171
Miyako Hotel “ 771 – 7111
WESTERN HOTELS IN NARA
Miyako Hotel (0742) - 23 – 5544
Nara Hotel “ 23 – 4101
AVERAGE ROOM RATES
Single: ¥ 2,000 – ¥ 3,800 ($5.50 - $10.50)
Twin : ¥ 3,500 - ¥ 8,000 ($9.70 - $22.00)
Suite : ¥10,000 - ¥30,000 ($27.50 - $83.30)
5 U. K.
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27 Republic of Vietnam, U. A. R., Ireland
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60 Fuji Group
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66 American Park
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